A 52-year-old man with pulmonary sarcoidosis presented to the emergency department with a 1-day history of fever (temperature 39.9 °C), chills, nausea, and vomiting. One week earlier, azathioprine 50 mg/day had been started for worsening dyspnea. The patient was admitted and evaluated for acute infectious processes. All of his home medications (hydroxychloroquine, prednisone, fluticasone/salmeterol, lovastatin, pantoprazole, zolpidem, ibandronate, albuterol), except prednisone, were held. Results of chest X-ray, viral cultures, and urine and blood cultures revealed no source of infection. The patient's temperature returned to normal within 30 hours after discontinuation of azathioprine; rechallenge was not performed.
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Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses, which has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the world's first drug discovery and development portal, providing information on study design, treatments, conclusions and references. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abacavir sulfate; abciximab; abetimus sodium; adalimumab; aldesleukin; almotriptan; alteplase; amisulpride; amitriptyline hydrochloride; amoxicillin trihydrate; atenolol; atorvastatin calcium; atrasentan; Beclometasone dipropionate; bosentan; Captopril; ceftriaxone sodium; cerivastatin sodium; cetirizine hydrochloride; cisplatin; citalopram hydrobromide; Dalteparin sodium; darusentan; desirudin; digoxin; Efalizumab; enoxaparin sodium; ertapenem sodium; esomeprazole magnesium; estradiol; ezetimibe; Famotidine; farglitazar; fluorouracil; fluticasone propionate; fosamprenavir sodium; Glibenclamide; glucosamine sulfate; Heparin sodium; HSPPC-96; hydrochlorothiazide; Imatinib mesilate; implitapide; Lamivudine; lansoprazole; lisinopril; losartan potassium; l-Propionylcarnitine; Melagatran; metformin hydrochloride; methotrexate; methylsulfinylwarfarin; Nateglinide; norethisterone; Olmesartan medoxomil; omalizumab; omapatrilat; omeprazole; oseltamivir phosphate; oxatomide; Pantoprazole; piperacillin sodium; pravastatin sodium; Quetiapine hydrochloride; Rabeprazole sodium; raloxifene hydrochloride; ramosetron hydrochloride; ranolazine; rasburicase; reboxetine mesilate; recombinant somatropin; repaglinide; reteplase; rosiglitazone; rosiglitazone maleate; rosuvastatin calcium; Sertraline; simvastatin; sumatriptan succinate; Tazobactam sodium; tenecteplase; tibolone; tinidazole; tolterodine tartrate; troglitazone; Uniprost; Warfarin sodium; Ximelagatran.
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Intravenous (IV) proton-pump inhibitor therapy is used in patients who cannot take oral medications or require greater acid suppression. Oral esomeprazole produces greater acid suppression than oral pantoprazole; however, no comparative data exist for oral esomeprazole and i.v. pantoprazole.
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First, we reviewed clinical studies that compared the efficacy of different dosages of omeprazole and pantoprazole. Second, we analyzed data from a nationwide database of drug prescriptions to determine the dosages used in daily practice in 1999. The data were based on a representative sample of approximately 40% of the Dutch community pharmacies. Third, we modeled the outcome of potential substitution of pantoprazole for omeprazole and the corresponding scenarios for nationwide cost savings using the prescription information from the nationwide database. Potential savings within the Dutch health care system were estimated.
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The changes in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related symptoms on treatment are variously described, but currently available questionnaires have shortcomings. We therefore developed a self-assessment reflux questionnaire (ReQuest). This article describes the process of development and testing.
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A 56-year-old man presented with chronic abdominal pain. He had been evaluated extensively in the recent past undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy and CT scan of the abdomen with normal results. The provisional diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was performed and pinaverium bromide was started. The patient had pre-existing hypertension, a major depressive disorder and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. He had been taking nebivolol and pantoprazole for several years and mirtazapine for the last 1 year. The patient developed nausea, vomiting and anorexia after 5 days of starting pinaverium bromide. Investigations revealed marked elevation of liver enzymes and bilirubin. He was negative for HIV, HBSAg, anti-hepatitis C virus, IgM for hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus, antinuclear antibody and antimitochondrial antibody. An ultrasound showed mild hepatomegaly with hypoechoic echo texture; the rest of scan was normal. Pinaverium and mirtazapine were stopped immediately. The patient was treated symptomatically and his liver profile returned to normal after 4 weeks.
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Pantoprazole did not influence plasma levels of testosterone, circadian cortisol concentrations or plasma cortisol levels after exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation, as compared to placebo (P > 0.05, Koch's test). Furthermore, there were no clinically relevant changes with any of the other endocrine parameters. Pantoprazole significantly increased the median 24-h pH (group median 4.3 vs. 1.8; P < 0.001) and decreased 24-h H(+)-activity (4.0 vs. 22.6 mmol/L; P < 0.001). The volume of nocturnal gastric juice did not significantly differ between the two treatments. Pantoprazole was well tolerated and the frequency of adverse events was similar to placebo. No drug-related changes in laboratory values were observed.
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To assess the possible relationship between the metabolic disposition of pantoprazole and genetically determined S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation phenotype and genotype.
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The study was designed in a prospective, national, multicentre nature. Sixty-five patients with a suggestive history of a PPI-induced immediate hypersensitivity reaction and 30 control subjects were included. Standardized skin prick and intradermal tests were carried out with a panel of PPIs. Single-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests (OPTs) with the PPIs other than the culprit PPI that displayed negative results in skin tests (n = 61) and diagnostic OPTs with the suspected PPI (n = 12) were performed.
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A total of 65 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease were administered either 40 or 20 mg of p.o. pantoprazole daily for 10 days, then were switched to either a matching dose of i.v. pantoprazole or to placebo for 7 days. Acid output (basal and maximal) was measured at the end of the p.o. treatment period and on the first and last days of i.v. therapy. In the primary efficacy analysis, the acid output values at the end of the p.o. pantoprazole treatment were compared with those at the end of the i.v. treatment. Safety was monitored by periodic vital sign measurements, clinical laboratory evaluations, ophthalmic examinations, electrocardiograms, and reports of adverse events. The data were tested by an analysis of covariance and by Wilcoxon signed rank and t tests.
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This study compared the effects of esomeprazole 40 mg and pantoprazole 40 mg on intragastric acid control. Both substances were administered intravenously as 15-min infusion and as bolus injection.
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Both groups (n= 60 each) were well matched in demographic and clinical factors upon entry. Bleeding totally recurred in 11 (9.2%) patients, with six (10%) in the 192 mg day(-1) group and five (8.3%) in the 160 mg day(-1) group (relative risk of bleeding recurrence between two treatments 1.2; 95% CI 0.39, 3.72). All secondary outcomes between the two groups were similar, including the amount of blood transfusion (mean 1179 ml vs. 1203 ml, P > 0.1), hospital stay (mean 9.5 days vs. 9.9 days, P > 0.1), need for surgery (n= 1 vs. n= 0, P > 0.1), and mortality (n= 1 vs. n= 0, P > 0.1).