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Retrovir (Zidovudine)
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Retrovir

Generic Retrovir is used for treating HIV infection when used along with other medicines. It is also used with other medicines to help prevent women from passing the HIV virus to the fetus during pregnancy.

Other names for this medication:
AZT, ZDV, azidothymidine

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Also known as:  Zidovudine.

Description

Generic Retrovir is an antiviral. It works by blocking the reproduction of the HIV virus.

Generic name of Generic Retrovir is Zidovudine.

Retrovir is also known as Zidovudine, Azidothymidine, Zidovir, Retrovis.

Brand name of Generic Retrovir is Retrovir.

Dosage

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Retrovir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Retrovir are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Be careful with Generic Retrovir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Retrovir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you are allergic to Generic Retrovir components.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you have an enlarged liver, high lactic acid levels in the blood, or abnormal liver function tests.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you are taking doxorubicin, ribavirin, stavudine, or any medicine that contains zidovudine.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems, bone marrow problems, low white blood cell levels, kidney problems, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, or other liver problems.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you take zalcitabine because severe pancreas problems may occur, fluconazole, ganciclovir, interferon alfa, probenecid, valproic acid, or any medicine that contains zidovudine because they may increase the risk of Generic Retrovir 's side effects; doxorubicin, ribavirin, or stavudine because they may decrease Generic Retrovir 's effectiveness.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you are very overweight.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

retrovir 250 mg

Pyomyositis is an infection of the skeletal muscle mostly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Patients in Western countries affected by pyomyositis associated with AIDS tend to be neutropenic. The objective of this study was to find out whether neutropenia is a common feature of African AIDS patients with pyomyositis; therefore, an African sample was compared with a sample of Western patients obtained from the international literature. During January-December 1993, 30 patients with pyomyositis were admitted to the Surgical Ward of Dr. Ambrosoli Memorial Hospital in Kalongo, Uganda. 11 (36.6%) were found positive for HIV and were in stage IV of the disease. The mean age was 28 years, 3 were females and 8 were males. The neutrophil count was performed before the surgical evacuation of muscle abscess. In the international literature, eight reports of 17 patients with AIDS and pyomyositis were located during the period of 1988-92. All were males in stage IV with a mean age of 37.3 years; 8 were treated with zidovudine. When the neutrophil count was below 3000/cu. mm, the patient was considered neutropenic. 12 out of 17 Western patients were neutropenic, as opposed to only 1 out of 11 Ugandan patients (p 0.01). The mean neutrophil count of Western patients was 3547; that of Ugandan patients was 9077 (p 0.01). Neutrophils are primary effector cells in host defense against staphylococcal infections such as pyomyositis; hence, it has been suggested that neutropenia contributes to the development of pyomyositis in AIDS patients. Neutrophils from AIDS patients were demonstrated to be defective in their ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus in vitro, compared with neutrophils from seronegative controls. Therefore, the defective neutrophil function associated with HIV infection contributed to the development of pyomyositis in Ugandan patients, among whom neutropenia was not common.

retrovir drug interactions

A total of 69 patients with pVL <50 copies/mL after 162 weeks of antiretroviral treatment started SQV-SGC/RTV 1600 mg/100 mg once-daily while continuing dual NRTIs. Previous treatment consisted of 66 weeks of treatment with a half/full dose of zidovudine (ZDV)/zalcitabine (ddC), followed by 2 years of SQV-SGC twice a day (bid) plus ZDV/lamivudine (3TC) or didanosine (ddI)/stavudine (d4T). Efficacy (pVL), safety and immunological changes (CD4 cell counts) were evaluated after 48 weeks in this open-label, single-arm prospective study.

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Despite the success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, virological failure due to drug resistance development remains a major challenge. Resistant mutants display reduced drug susceptibilities, but in the absence of drug, they generally have a lower fitness than the wild type, owing to a mutation-incurred cost. The interaction between these fitness costs and drug resistance dictates the appearance of mutants and influences viral suppression and therapeutic success. Assessing in vivo viral fitness is a challenging task and yet one that has significant clinical relevance. Here, we present a new computational modelling approach for estimating viral fitness that relies on common sparse cross-sectional clinical data by combining statistical approaches to learn drug-specific mutational pathways and resistance factors with viral dynamics models to represent the host-virus interaction and actions of drug mechanistically. We estimate in vivo fitness characteristics of mutant genotypes for two antiretroviral drugs, the reverse transcriptase inhibitor zidovudine (ZDV) and the protease inhibitor indinavir (IDV). Well-known features of HIV-1 fitness landscapes are recovered, both in the absence and presence of drugs. We quantify the complex interplay between fitness costs and resistance by computing selective advantages for different mutants. Our approach extends naturally to multiple drugs and we illustrate this by simulating a dual therapy with ZDV and IDV to assess therapy failure. The combined statistical and dynamical modelling approach may help in dissecting the effects of fitness costs and resistance with the ultimate aim of assisting the choice of salvage therapies after treatment failure.

retrovir generic

Previous studies demonstrate that soluble HIV proteins impact both hepatocyte function and HCV replication in vitro. It has also been reported that HIV can productively infect hepatocytes. We therefore investigated the impact of HIV infection of hepatocytes on HCV expression. The Huh7.5JFH1 cell line that constitutively expresses infectious HCV was infected with the lab-adapted strains HIVNL4-3 or HIVYK-JRCSF. HCV expression was quantified via HCV core antigen ELISA, Western blot, and strand-specific real-time PCR for positive-sense and negative-sense HCV RNA. After HIVNL4-3 infection of Huh7.5JFH1 cells, positive-sense and negative-sense HCV RNA levels were elevated compared to HIV uninfected cells. Increased HCV RNA synthesis was also observed after infection of Huh7.5JFH1 cells with HIVYK-JRCSF. HIV-induced HCV core production was decreased in the presence of the anti-HIV drugs AZT, T20, and raltegravir, although these medications had a minimal effect on HCV expression in the absence of HIV. HCV core, NS3, and NS5A protein expression were increased after HIV infection of Huh7.5JFH1 cells. Chemically inactivated HIV had a minimal effect on HCV expression in Huh7.5JFH1 cells suggesting that ongoing viral replication was critical. These data demonstrate that HIV induces HCV RNA synthesis and protein production in vitro and complement previous in vivo reports that HCV RNA levels are elevated in individuals with HIV/HCV co-infection compared to those with HCV mono-infection. These findings suggest that HIV suppression may be a critical factor in controlling liver disease, particularly if the underlying liver disease is not treated.

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Decline in CD4+ cell count to ART eligibility thresholds by 24 months postpartum was common among women receiving PMTCT prophylaxis during pregnancy and/or delivery.

retrovir oral suspension

Mean baseline CD4 cell counts (+/- SE) were 301+/-29 x 10(6) cells/l and 310 +/-43 x 10(6) cells/l in the SQV-SGC and indinavir groups, respectively. The log10 median baseline HIV RNA load was 5.00 copies/ml in the SQV-SGC group and 4.98 copies/ml in the indinavir group. No difference in antiretroviral effect between the treatment arms could be demonstrated. Intention-to-treat analysis (last observation carried forward [LOCF]) at week 24 revealed that RNA levels decreased to < 50 copies/ml in 74.3% of patients in the SQV-SGC group and in 71.4% of the patients in the indinavir group (P = 0.78). In the on-treatment analysis the proportion of patients < 50 copies/ml at week 24 was 88.0% in the SQV-SGC group and 84.6% in the indinavir group (P = 0.725). Intriguingly, the mean increase of CD4 cells in the first 24 weeks was 162+/-20 x 10(6) cells/l in the SQV-SGC group and 89+/-21 x 10(6) cells/l in the indinavir group (P = 0.01), but preliminary data indicate that this difference in CD4 cell count gain may disappear after 24 weeks of treatment. Both regimens were generally well tolerated.

retrovir medicine

Plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration was measured daily. Study end points were between-group differences in change from baseline of log10-transformed HIV-1 RNA and in rates of viral load decline measured by the slope of HIV-1 RNA over time. At baseline, mean HIV-1 RNA was similar in the once/day and twice/day groups (4.33 and 4.40 log10 copies/ml, respectively). At day 14, a trend toward lower mean reduction in HIV-1 RNA from baseline was observed in the once/day group (-0.585, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.728 to -0.442 log10 copies/ml) compared with the twice/day group (-0.849, 95% CI -1.067 to -0.630 log10 copies/ml, p=0.056). Viral load reduction also tended to be slower in the once/day group, as indicated by the smaller slope of viral load decline in the once/day group than in the twice/day group during days 1-14 (-0.045 vs -0.065 logic copies/ml/day, p=0.065). Both zidovudine regimens were similarly well tolerated.

retrovir drug class

We tested the validity of a previously-published AIDS staging system by examining AIDS-defining diseases (ADDs) and CD4 counts as prognostic factors for survival of the 248 AIDS patients in the Edinburgh City Hospital Cohort, of whom 56% were injecting drug-users (IDUs). Cox regression was used to model the proportionality of risk of death as the CD4 count declined and more ADDs were experienced, and dependence upon post-AIDS treatment. Using the system of Mocroft et al. (Lancet 1995; 346:12-17) to grade severity, our data were well enough modelled, but we suggest: (i) regrading of HIV dementia (RR 3.9, 95% CI 2.5-6.0), mainly attributed to the drug users, to a very severe ADD; (ii) reduction in risk from zidovudine (RR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.0) during AIDS follow-up for patients starting treatment at or after AIDS diagnosis; (iii) improved management of first mild ADDs (from 1987-89 to 1994-95: 40% reduction in IDUs appearing with mild index diseases, and an approximate three-fold reduction in risk associated with a mild ADD). This study supports previous findings on the significance of ADDs and lowest CD4 count in predicting the lifetime of AIDS patients.

retrovir syrup zidovudine

Fifty-three paired CSF and plasma specimens had been prospectively collected and stored from 49 HIV-1 infected patients. These were tested using a commercially available line probe assay which allows the simultaneous detection of wild-type and drug selected variants conferring resistance to one or more drugs: zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, and lamivudine.

retrovir pediatric dosing

Among 504 cases of AIDS diagnosed between 1983 and 1990, there were 86 patients (17%) with toxoplasma encephalitis (TE). All were symptomatic at the time of diagnosis. General signs such as fever, neck stiffness, or headache were present in 87.2%, and 75.6% had focal signs. The primary means of diagnosis was computerized tomographic scanning, revealing 169 lesions of which 80% were immediately contrast-enhancing. All patients had IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii either before (74 of 75 evaluable patients) or at the time of diagnosis of TE (73 of 75). Elevated antibody titers were present in 44% of evaluable patients, compared to 11% of patients with AIDS and other opportunistic infections. Initial treatment was pyrimethamine plus sulfonamides in 65 patients, and pyrimethamine plus clindamycin in 12 patients, with other combinations or no treatment accounting for the remainder. Life-table analysis of the time to discontinuation of treatment because of suspected side effects suggested that sulfadiazine was significantly more toxic, with 48% of patients experiencing an interruption in treatment after 30 days, than pyrimethamine (12%) or clindamycin (24%). The 30-day mortality rate was 12%, and median survival was 310 days after diagnosis, 530 in patients treated with zidovudine and 190 days in those not so treated. Of 82 evaluable patients, 16 relapsed once and 4 of these more than once. The risk of relapse was 27% 1 year after diagnosis of a first episode of TE.

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Hydroxyurea inhibits antigen-induced lymphoproliferation in vitro at a concentration at which it does not inhibit PHA-induced HIV replication. Hydroxyurea may inhibit HIV-1 in CD4+ T cells in vivo not only by decreasing the amount of intracellular deoxynucleotides, but more specifically by interfering with antigen-dependent T-cell activation, thereby causing a reduction in the number of HIV target cells.

retrovir cost

The most recommended NRTI combinations as first-line antiretroviral treatment for HIV-1 infection in resource-rich settings are tenofovir/emtricitabine, abacavir/lamivudine, tenofovir/lamivudine and zidovudine/lamivudine. Efficacy studies of these combinations also considering pill numbers, dosing frequencies and ethnicities are rare.

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retrovir medication 2017-07-15

The question about when to start antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients Zithromax Capsules has been debated since the discovery of the first antiretroviral agent (zidovudine) back in 1986 and has been fuelled by the introduction of highly active combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) 10 years later in 1996. The dramatic improvement in the mortality rate associated with cART supported the principle of 'hitting early and hard', but the initial enthusiasm was quickly tempered by the realization of the inconveniences and the short- to mid-term treatment-related toxicities, including lipoatrophy. In 2009, cART can be very simple and generally well tolerated. All patients with a CD4+ T cell count of <350 cells/mm(3) should receive cART. Moreover, several cohort studies have convincingly demonstrated a significant reduction of AIDS- and non-AIDS-related events when cART is initiated at >350 CD4+ T lymphocytes/mm(3), and even at >500 CD4+ T lymphocytes/mm(3). Also, cART may be considered when there are associated co-morbidities, such as hepatitis C. In addition to individual benefits, an undetectable viral load in response to cART is associated with a substantial reduction in the likelihood of HIV transmission. This can benefit seronegative sexual partners and can potentially diminish the number of new infections, especially if those infected persons unaware of their situation can be identified and advised to initiate cART. Willingness to be treated and to adhere to the prescribed medication still remains the key to success.

retrovir 200 mg 2015-03-21

The coadministration of EFV decreased the bioavailability of ENG released from the Paracetamol 4000 Mg implant, which could impair contraceptive efficacy. However, the coadministration of LPV/r increased the bioavailability of ENG released from the implant, which suggests that this antiretroviral combination does not impair the ENG implant efficacy.

retrovir oral suspension 2016-10-21

Most pregnant women were infected by heterosexual transmission (54%). 71% women were included in stage A of the Centers for Disease Control classification of Desyrel With Alcohol HIV infection and 74% women have received high activity antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy. Prevalence of adverse effects treatment-related was 7%, mainly anaemia related to treatment with zidovudine. We found 6 cases of vertical transmission among 686 newborns (0.8%; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-1.8).

retrovir syrup 2017-12-23

Liquid antiretroviral medications are critical for prevention Zebeta Drug Interactions and treatment of pediatric HIV infections, yet dosing errors were exceedingly common in this population and were significantly associated with lower HIV literacy levels. Targeted interventions are needed to improve HIV knowledge and skills for pediatric medication dosing, particularly for caregivers with limited literacy.

retrovir pediatric dosing 2016-06-03

Most African results Avodart Medication Generic relate to trials of antiretroviral agents (ARV). They demonstrate efficacy in reducing transmission in the first 6 months of life with short regimens of zidovudine (ZDV), with or without lamivudine (3TC), and nevirapine (NVP) alone. Preliminary results suggest the long-term efficacy of zidovudine. Antiseptic and nutritional interventions have been shown to reduce maternal and infant mortality and morbidity but not MTCT of HIV. HIV confidential voluntary counselling and testing for pregnant women, a short regimen of peripartum ARV with alternatives to breastfeeding such as early weaning or breast milk substitutes from birth currently represent the best option to reduce MTCTof HIV in Africa. However, the prevention of postnatal transmission requires further research, particularly in view of the consequences of different feeding options and the possibility of post-perinatal exposure prophylaxis of newborns with ARV. Issues relating to the implementation of currently validated strategies are discussed.

retrovir generic name 2016-08-13

There is firm evidence that several viruses can cause systemic vasculitis. Vasculitis induced by antiviral vaccines and drugs is less common and less well know. Most cases consist in de novo vasculitis that resolves spontaneously or under steroid therapy. Thus, the outcome is usually favorable. If an antiviral drug is the cause, it should not be used again in the patient. Another common sense measure is to refrain from immunizing patients with active vasculitis. A recent history of antiviral immunization or antiviral drug treatment should be sought routinely as part of the etiologic Imodium Liquid Dose work-up of every patient with vasculitis.

retrovir drug name 2015-11-08

Three-times-daily indinavir appears more efficacious than two-times-daily dosing when Clomid Off Brand administered with zidovudine and lamivudine. Two-times-daily indinavir dosing should only be considered in situations characterized by favorable pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions.

retrovir drug class 2017-05-06

Large numbers of injection drug users (IDUs) are infected with HIV and receive both methadone and zidovudine (ZDV) therapy. Pharmacokinetic interactions between these agents may effect drug efficacy, toxicity, and compliance. To confirm and Zithromax 750 Mg expand previous studies that identified a potential interaction between ZDV and methadone, we performed a within-subject study to determine oral and intravenous ZDV pharmacokinetics in 8 recently detoxified, heroin-addicted patients with HIV disease before and after initiation of methadone treatment. Acute methadone treatment increased oral ZDV in the area under the curve (AUC) by 41% (p = .03) and intravenous ZDV AUC by 19% (p = .06). Clearance was reduced by 21% (p = .007) and 19% (p = .04), respectively. Chronic methadone treatment increased oral ZDV AUC by 29% (p = .15) and intravenous ZDV AUC by 41% (p = .05). Clearance was decreased by 26% for both routes (p = .02). Methadone levels remained in the therapeutic range during ZDV treatment. These effects resulted primarily from inhibition of ZDV glucuronidation, but also from decreased renal clearance of ZDV. This study confirms that methadone-maintained patients receiving standard ZDV doses experience greater ZDV exposure and may be at increased risk for ZDV side effects and toxicity. Increased toxicity surveillance and possibly reduction in ZDV dose are indicated when these two agents are given concomitantly.

retrovir syrup dosage 2017-05-25

CCL2 (MCP-1) is a proinflammatory chemokine induced in HIV-1 infection. We have previously demonstrated a significant correlation of CCL2 gene expression with HIV-1 viremia. In this study we investigated the effect of prednisolone on CCL2 gene expression and viral load in Mestinon Buy an HIV-1-infected patient receiving high-dose prednisolone for severe uveitis. We observed a >1 log reduction of HIV-1 viral load, associated with more than hundred fold reduction of CCL2 expression at day 3 of prednisolone treatment. In vitro HIV-1 infection of PBMC demonstrated reduced HIV-1 replication in the presence of prednisolone. Flow cytometric analysis revealed 50% reduction of LTR driven GFP activity by prednisolone in GHOST cells. These findings indicate that prednisolone suppresses both HIV-1 viral load and CCL2 mRNA expression, an association which might be exploited for future anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies in HIV-1 infection.

retrovir brand name 2016-06-14

Stanford University researchers have determined that protease inhibitors are effective against Mestinon Dosage HIV-1 subtype C infections. HIV-1 subtype C, while common in Africa and India, is not prevalent in the United States, and the drugs previously had not been tested for their effectiveness against that strain. All HIV subtypes are expected to be susceptible to highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) which are used to treat subtype B, the strain most common in the United States, Europe, and Australia. In Africa, however, economics interferes with the ability of HIV-infected individuals to get access to anti-HIV drugs. Several studies on the effects of anti-HIV treatment and the prevention of transmission of the disease from pregnant women to their babies are described.

cost of retrovir 2017-08-18

A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 254 HIV-infected patients attending an outpatient clinic at Santa Casa de Vitoria< They were interviewed and blood samples were collected for CD4 cell counts, HIV-1 viral load, glucose, lipids and creatinine measurements. Urine protein was evaluated in the first voiding urine sample. Glomerular filtration was estimated by simplified modified diet in renal disease (MDRD) and Cockcroft-Gault formulas.

retrovir dosage forms 2015-04-10

Zidovudine and stavudine impaired adiponectin production in vitro at therapeutic Cmax concentrations, but none of the tested NRTIs had a negative impact on adipocyte differentiation or led to mtDNA depletion at these concentrations. Susceptibility of preadipocytes to mtDNA depletion was dependent on cell proliferation and differentiation, and mtDNA depletion occurred only after exposure to high drug concentrations. Under these conditions, stavudine led to up to 80% mtDNA depletion in both dividing and differentiating preadipocytes, whereas zidovudine affected mtDNA only in the differentiating cells. Despite mtDNA depletion by NRTIs, activity of the respiratory chain complexes was found to be unimpaired.