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A total of 24 healthy male Chinese volunteers (mean age 22.9 years [standard deviation (SD) 2.7, range 19.2-27.1]; weight 63.2 kg [SD 7.0, range 52.0-78.0]; and height 171.3 cm [SD 6.1, range 162.0-187.0]) were enrolled, and all completed the study. For the parent drug, risperidone, the 90% CIs of the relative values (test vs. reference) of the Cmax, AUC from time zero to time t (AUCt), and AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC∞) were 97.0-124.0%, 92.7-115.1%, and 92.8-114.2%, respectively. For the active metabolite, 9-hydroxy-risperidone, the values were 104.4-117.7%, 101.0-113.7%, and 100.4-113.4%, respectively. The two formulations met the predetermined criteria for bioequivalence. A total of 73 AEs were observed in 24 subjects during the study. The most common AE was sedation (48 events), followed by nasal reactions (14 events), postural hypotension (3 events), hypertriglyceridemia (2 events), dizziness (4 events), nausea (1 event), and anorexia (1 event). Their severity was as follows: 16 were mild, 57 were moderate, and none were severe. The majority of the AEs were considered to be related (48 events) or probably related (23 events) to the study medication. No clinically significant abnormalities on physical examination, vital sign measurements, or electrocardiographic recordings were reported. No serious AEs were reported.
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The liquid SELFs were designed using various oils, nonionic surfactants and converted into solid at various SELF: NUS2 (%m/m) mixing ratios. The characterization of solid SELF powder was performed by using SEM, XRD, FT-IR & DSC to investigate the physical nature of the drug. The in vitro dissolution experiments were conducted to compare the representative formulations with marketed product risperdal®. In vitro digestion experiments were performed using a pH-stat at pH 6.8 for 30mins to predict the fate of risperidone in the GI tract after exposure of the solid SELF to pancreatic enzymes and bile.
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This open-label, multi-centre study enrolled 82 adults from four diagnostic groups (major depressive disorder (MDD), n = 25; bipolar disorder (BP), n = 21; dementia (DE), n = 20; schizophrenia (SZ), n = 16). Patients were switched from their previous dosage of compressed tablets (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0 mg/day) to an equivalent dosage of orally disintegrating risperidone and followed for 4 weeks. The primary effectiveness parameter evaluated was the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale.
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Orally disintegrating risperidone tablets (Risperdal* M-TABs*) present an alternative method of drug delivery that may benefit physicians struggling to treat non-compliant patients, since it begins to dissolve within 5 s, preventing tablet cheeking or spitting.
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Schizophrenia is a chronic disease characterized by psychotic symptoms as well as negative symptoms such as affective flattening, social withdrawal and occupational dysfunction. Anti-psychotic medications reduce the risk of psychotic exacerbations and hospitalization. Poor compliance is common among patients with schizophrenia. Long-acting medications have such advantages as stabilizing drug levels and improving compliance. Second generation anti-psychotic medications were found to be more effective and tolerable compared to first generation drugs. These medications cause less extra-pyramidal symptoms, and compliance with them was shown to be better. Until recently there were only first generation long-acting anti-psychotics in use. Recently a new second generation long-acting anti-psychotic drug was introduced in Israel. We present our experience with a first schizophrenic patient treated with long-acting Risperidone (Risperdal Consta). The patient was treated in the past with several first generation anti-psychotics and suffered severe extra-pyramidal symptoms. His compliance with treatment was poor. Under treatment with oral Risperidone a considerable improvement was recorded, however compliance remained poor. Under treatment with long-acting Risperidone, Intramuscularly 25 Mg every two week, both positive and negative symptoms improved substantially, as well as compliance with treatment. The results of this case study encourage us to believe that many more patients will benefit from the advantages of both a second-generation anti-psychotic and a long-acting preparation.
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Bioequivalence between the generic 1 mg/ml risperidone solution and the originator tablet formulation was not proven in this study.
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The data from this study in healthy adult male Chinese subjects suggest that the test formulation met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence to the reference formulation, on the basis of the rate and extent of absorption. Both formulations were well tolerated.
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The findings are limited by the lack of a parallel control treatment, such as with oral risperidone or another antipsychotic, lack of blinded assessments, and a moderate number of subjects. Nevertheless, the findings add to indications that RLAI can be an effective and well-tolerated treatment-option for chronically psychotic patients.