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The mean MPRs were 0.68 for risperidone (n = 231), 0.68 for olanzapine (n = 283), 0.71 for quetiapine (n = 106), and 0.46 for typical antipsychotics (n = 205). Patients initiated on typical antipsychotics were 23.6% less adherent than patients initiated on risperidone (p < 0.001). Mean persistence (days) was 194.8 for risperidone, 200.9 for olanzapine, 219.8 for quetiapine, and 179.2 for typical antipsychotics. Extended Cox regression modeling indicated no significant differences between antipsychotics in hazards of therapy modification within 250 days of initiation. However, patients initiated on typical antipsychotics were 5.2 times more likely to modify therapy compared with those initiated on risperidone after 250 days of antipsychotic therapy (p < 0.001).
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Twelve patients with DSM-IV delirium were treated with flexible doses of open-label quetiapine (mean +/- SD dosage = 44.9 +/- 31.0 mg/day). To evaluate the usefulness and safety of quetiapine, scores from the Delirium Rating Scale, Japanese version, were assessed every day (for 1 outpatient, at least twice per week), and scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination, Japanese version, and the Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptom Scale were assessed at baseline and after remission of delirium. Data were gathered from April to October 2001.
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Chronic management of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders is frequently complicated by symptomatic relapse. An open-label, randomized, active-controlled, 2-year trial evaluated 710 patients with schizophrenia or related disorders who were switched from stable treatment with oral risperidone, olanzapine, or conventional neuroleptics to risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) or oral quetiapine. Primary effectiveness evaluation was time-to-relapse. Safety evaluations included adverse events (AEs) reported for the duration of the study, Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS), clinical laboratory tests, and vital signs. A total of 666 patients (n=329 RLAI, n=337 quetiapine) were evaluable for effectiveness measures. Baseline demographics were similar between treatment groups. Kaplan-Meier estimate of time-to-relapse was significantly longer with RLAI (p<0.0001). Relapse occurred in 16.5% of patients with RLAI and 31.3% with quetiapine. RLAI and quetiapine were both safe and well tolerated. Weight gain affected 7% of patients with RLAI and 6% with quetiapine, with mean end point increases of 1.25±6.61 and 0±6.55 kg, respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in weight gain. ESRS total scores decreased similarly after randomization to either RLAI or quetiapine. Extrapyramidal AEs occurred in 10% of patients with RLAI and 6% with quetiapine. Treatment-emergent potentially prolactin-related AEs were reported in 15 (5%) patients with RLAI and 5 (2%) patients with quetiapine; hyperprolactinemia was reported in 43 (13.1%) patients with RLAI and 5 (1.5%) patients with quetiapine. Somnolence occurred in 2% of patients with RLAI and 11% with quetiapine. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a randomized clinical trial directly comparing relapse prevention with a second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotic and oral therapy. Time-to-relapse in stable patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was significantly longer in patients randomized to RLAI compared with those randomized to oral quetiapine. Both antipsychotics were generally well tolerated.
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Consistent with the two previously published cases, the main clinical effects of overdose were hypotension, tachycardia, and somnolence as predicted by its known alpha-adrenergic receptor and histamine receptor blockade. These effects were managed with fluid resuscitation and supportive measures. No cardiac arrhythmias other than tachycardia have been reported, but the tachycardia was of an unexpectedly long duration in this case. Decline in serum quetiapine concentration followed a biexponential pattern with a terminal elimination half-life of 22 hours. Unexpectedly low peak serum concentrations in three patients with overdose suggest that absorption is highly reduced, either by the effects of the overdose or by the activated charcoal administered.
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There is increasing use of online pharmacies to purchase prescription drugs. While some online pharmacies are legitimate and safe, there are many unsafe and illegal so-called "rogue" online pharmacies. This study investigated the availability of psychotropic drugs online to consumers in the US, using 5 commonly prescribed drugs for bipolar disorder.
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The case of a 44-year-old female patient is reported, who ingested trimipramine and quetiapine in a suicide attempt. Initially sinus tachycardia and hypotension were seen, which resulted in a hypotensive cardio-circulatory failure despite fluid therapy and administration of catecholamines. Because of the life-threatening situation and the fact that the ingestion was 2 h prior to admission, a rapid transport to the next hospital was preferred to treatment with active charcoal. Intoxication with tricyclic antidepressants are very common in Europe and have a mortality of up to 15% in severe cases. The specific therapy consists of airway management, hemodynamic stabilization and primary elimination of the poison. Secondary detoxication is less important. The administration of the antidote physostigmine is controversial but carbo medicinalis should be given orally or via a gastric tube.
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Therapeutic drug monitoring request forms of patients whose antipsychotic drug concentrations had been measured under conditions of normal (<5 mg/l) and pathological (>5 mg/l) levels of C-reactive protein were retrospectively screened. The serum concentrations in relation to the daily doses [concentration per dose (C/D) (ng/mL/mg)] and the metabolic ratios [ratio of concentrations (metabolite/drug)] were compared intraindividually by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. To the study effects of the intensity of infections on drug concentrations, C-reactive protein and C/D levels were submitted to Spearman's correlation analysis.
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Clinical observations indicate no cataractogenic potential for quetiapine, in contrast to studies in laboratory animals. This randomized, non-inferiority study compared changes in lens opacity during long-term treatment with quetiapine versus risperidone. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in the 2-year, randomized, multicentre, open-label, ophthalmologist-masked, flexible-dose, parallel-group study. Two ophthalmologists examined each patient 6-monthly for presence of nuclear opalescence (N) and cortical (C) or posterior subcapsular opacification (P), according to the lens opacities classification system II. 1098 patients were randomized to treatment. Mean doses were 386.3 mg/day quetiapine and 3.2 mg/day risperidone. Estimated absolute risk differences in cataractogenic events for quetiapine versus risperidone over 2 years were -0.035 (C), -0.012 (N) and -0.017 (P), with upper margins of confidence intervals within the non-inferiority margin of 10%. In post hoc analysis, risk of any lens opacification event was significantly lower for quetiapine than risperidone (6 and 16 events, respectively; risk difference: -0.058; P = 0.035). Efficacy and other safety assessments were in agreement with known profiles of these medications. Quetiapine was non-inferior to risperidone for changes in lens opacity grade in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, indicating that quetiapine does not have clinically significant cataractogenic potential during long-term treatment.
This study assesses the long-term tolerability, safety, and clinical benefit of quetiapine in elderly patients with psychosis.
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Prospective naturalistic systematic clinical evaluation. Patients being newly prescribed atypical anti-psychotics over a one year period were assessed by psychiatrists at initiation and after six months treatment using five outcome measures: clinical global impression; positive and negative psychotic symptoms; drug related side effects; and quality of life.
Of 193 patients randomized to treatment, 144 patients completed the study (75.3% of quetiapine XR group [n=70]; 74.0% of placebo group [n=74]). Least squares mean changes in CDRS-R total score at week 8 were: -29.6 (SE, 1.65) with quetiapine XR and -27.3 (SE, 1.60) with placebo, a between-treatment group difference of -2.29 (SE, 1.99; 95% CI, -6.22, 1.65; p=0.25; mixed-model for repeated measures analysis). Rates of response and remission did not differ significantly between treatment groups. The safety profile of quetiapine XR was broadly consistent with the profile reported previously in adult studies of quetiapine XR and pediatric studies of quetiapine immediate-release (IR). Potentially clinically significant elevations in clinical chemistry values included triglycerides (9.3%, quetiapine XR; 1.4%, placebo group) and thyroid stimulating hormone (4.7%, quetiapine XR; 0%, placebo group). An adverse event potentially related to diabetes mellitus occurred in 3.3% of the quetiapine XR versus no adverse events in the placebo group.
Levels of ionotropic glutamate (Glu) N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and kainic acid (KA) receptors in rat forebrain regions were compared by quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography after continuous treatment for 28 days with the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine, risperidone, and quetiapine, or vehicle controls. All three treatments significantly decreased NMDA binding in caudate-putamen (CPu; by 30, 34, and 26%, respectively) but increased AMPA receptor levels in same region (by 22, 30, and 28%). Olanzapine and risperidone, but not quetiapine, also reduced NMDA receptor labeling in hippocampal CA1 (21 and 19%) and CA3 (23 and 22%) regions. KA receptors were unaltered by any treatment in the brain regions examined. These findings suggest that the antipsychotic effects of olanzapine and risperidone may be mediated in part by NMDA receptors in hippocampus, and perhaps AMPA receptors in CPu. The findings also support the hypothesis that down-regulation of NMDA receptors by atypical antipsychotic agents in CPu contributes to their low risk of extra-pyramidal side effects. Inability of olanzapine, risperidone, and quetiapine to alter KA receptors suggests their minimal role in mediating the central nervous system actions of these drugs.