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There were 21 patients with age range of 8-38 years and male to female ratio of 2:1. Engraftment was achieved in all patients; median time to absolute neutrophil count of > 0.5 x 10(9)/l was 10 days (range 8 - 12 days) and platelet count of > 20 x 10(9)/l was 14 days (12-17 days). Acute graft versus host disease ( aGvHD) was seen in 7 patients; one patient had grade IV skin and hepatic GvHD; another patient had grade III gut GvHD, grade II GvHD was seen in 3 patients while grade I skin aGvHD was seen in 2 patients. Median hospital stay was 34 days. Treatment related mortality was seen in 3 patients (18%). Chronic GvHD was seen in 5 patients. Four more patients died during the follow-up period. Malaria was seen in 2 while tuberculosis developed in one case. Relapse was seen in 2 patients. The estimated probability of survival at one hundred day, at one year and five years was 82, 47 and 40 percent respectively.
A 34-year-old man with 6 years' untreated erythematous scaling of the skin was diagnosed as having extensive skin candidosis. Oral itraconazole was administered for 4 weeks (400 mg day-1 for the first 3 weeks and 200 mg day-1 for the last week). At the end of the 4-week treatment period, the rash was completely cleared from all skin sites, and Candida albicans was absent in culture tests on tissue samples. No adverse events were reported by the patient, and laboratory analysis revealed no abnormalities in the liver, kidney and haematological systems. Oral itraconazole is therefore an effective treatment for extensive skin candidosis.
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In this metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) we aimed to compare the in vivo and in vitro activity and the safety of per os itraconazole and fluconazole treatment of uncomplicated acute vaginal/vulvovaginal candidiasis in nonpregnant women. We used PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to identify the studies that were relevant to our metaanalysis RCTs. Six RCTs were included in this study that comprised 1092 enrolled patients with signs and symptoms of vaginal/vulvovaginal candidiasis that was confirmed by microscopy and/or microbiologic cultures that were obtained from the ectocervix and/or vaginal fundus. Overall, there was no difference between itraconazole and fluconazole regarding clinical cure and improvement at the first and second scheduled visit assessments (pooled odds ratio [OR], 0.94 [95% CI, 0.6-1.48] and 1.09 [95% CI, 0.68-1.75], respectively), mycologic cure at the first and second scheduled visit assessments (OR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.31-1.7] and 0.71 [95% CI, 0.49-1.03], respectively), withdrawal of patients because of severe adverse events (OR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.16-3.32]), and adverse events noted from the nervous and digestive systems (OR, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.42-2.73] and 1.84 [95% CI, 0.3-11.27], respectively). In conclusion, effectiveness and safety of oral itraconazole and fluconazole in the treatment of acute uncomplicated vaginal/vulvovaginal candidiasis are similar.
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A case of cutaneous protothecosis was reported in a 78-year-old man that was in treatment for pemphigus foliaceus and phaeohyphomycosis. He presented erythematous lesions which were infiltrated into his right leg. The diagnosis was made histopathologically and confirmed by culture, and the patient was successfully treated with itraconazole.
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Tinea capitis has a high incidence with a global changing pathogen distribution, making this condition a public health concern around the world. As the infection is initially asymptomatic, it is easily spread. Moreover, it is present in many fomites, including hairbrushes, pillows, and bedding. Prompt recognition and treatment is necessary for kerion, an inflammatory subtype characterized by tender boggy plaques with purulent drainage. Kerion is usually associated with infection by zoophilic dermatophytes, although other sources have been described. Treatment for this severe form of dermatophytic infection can be challenging. In addition to the use of topical treatments, oral administration of griseofulvin, terbinafine, itraconazole, or fluconazole is often required. Griseofulvin, the first-line treatment, may not completely eradicate pathogen colonization of the host and may contribute to reinfection and prevalence of infective but asymptomatic carriers. This review highlights new agents that are being evaluated for the treatment of kerion and typical tinea capitis, enhanced diagnostic criteria, and a grading system for kerion evaluation.
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All the cases received surgical treatment including complete resection in 69 cases, and palliative resection in 12 cases. Resections were performed by means of video-assisted thoracoscopy in 31 cases and thoracotomy in 50 cases. Surgical resections included pulmonary wedge excisions in 42 cases, and lobectomies in 39 cases. After histological confirmation, 63 cases (77.8%) were treated with antifungal agents, which consisted of fluconazole in 38 cases, itraconazole in 18 cases, amphotericin B in 6 cases, and flucytosine in 4 cases. There were no intraoperative death, but two cases died for cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in the postoperative period. Operative morbidity occurred in 7 (8.6%) cases. The median follow-up was 42.5 months (6 to 84 months). There were 2 local relapses of PC, and 9 cases with complications of anti-fungal agents.
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Fungal infections in humans, wildlife, and plants are a growing concern because of their devastating effects on human and ecosystem health. In recent years, populations of many amphibian species have declined, and some have become extinct due to chytridiomycosis caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. For some endangered amphibian species, captive colonies are the best intermediate solution towards eventual reintroduction, and effective antifungal treatments are needed to cure chytridiomycosis and limit the spread of this pathogen in such survival assurance colonies. Currently, the best accepted treatment for infected amphibians is itraconazole, but its toxic side effects reduce its usefulness for many species. Safer antifungal treatments are needed for disease control. Here, we show that nikkomycin Z, a chitin synthase inhibitor, dramatically alters the cell wall stability of B. dendrobatidis cells and completely inhibits growth of B. dendrobatidis at 250 μM. Low doses of nikkomycin Z enhanced the effectiveness of natural antimicrobial skin peptide mixtures tested in vitro. These studies suggest that nikkomycin Z would be an effective treatment to significantly reduce the fungal burden in frogs infected by B. dendrobatidis.
A comparative study, based on histopathologic findings (inflammation, cellularity, and fibrosis) and immunologic parameters (pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines), was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of itraconazole (ITC) treatment and its starting time in a BALB/c murine model of chronic pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), induced by intranasal inoculation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) conidia. Two different groups of mice were exposed to ITC therapy beginning at the 4th or 8th week after Pb infection, respectively. ITC was administered daily, via gavage, for a period of sixty days. At weeks 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 the animals were sacrificed and their lungs removed for histology staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson's trichromic and Gomori-Grocott; pulmonary levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-13 and TGF-β were also measured by ELISA. The development or absence of the principal pulmonary PCM sequela, lung fibrosis, was directly related to the therapy's starting time. This and other histopathologic findings were related to the behavior of cytokine levels.