A crossover trial of nateglinide and acarbose was conducted on 16 drug-naïve patients with newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes during a total period of 9 weeks. Plasma glucose, serum insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), lipids and lipoproteins, and plasma ADMA were measured.
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Post-transplant diabetes mellitus is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation that generally requires treatment with lifestyle interventions and antidiabetic medication. A number of demonstrated and potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) exist between commonly used immunosuppressants and antidiabetic drugs, which are comprehensively summarized in this review. Cyclosporine (CsA) itself inhibits the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 enzyme and a variety of drug transporters. As a result, it increases exposure to repaglinide and sitagliptin, will likely increase the exposure to nateglinide, glyburide, saxagliptin, vildagliptin and alogliptin, and could theoretically increase the exposure to gliquidone and several sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors. Currently available data, although limited, suggest that these increases are modest and, particularly with regard to gliptins and SGLT-2 inhibitors, unlikely to result in hypoglycemia. The interaction with repaglinide is more pronounced but does not preclude concomitant use if repaglinide dose is gradually titrated. Mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine do not engage in DDIs with any antidiabetic drug. Although calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) are intrinsically prone to DDIs, their disposition is not influenced by metformin, pioglitazone, sulfonylureas (except possibly glyburide) or insulin. An effect of gliptins on the disposition of CNIs and mTORi is unlikely, but has not been definitively ruled out. Based on their disposition profiles, glyburide and canagliflozin could affect CNI and mTORi disposition although this requires further study. Finally, delayed gastric emptying as a result of glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists seems to have a limited, but not necessarily negligible effect on CNI disposition.
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A progressive weight gain is associated with various pharmacological options improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ghrelin has been implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy balance in humans. Based on evidence that functional ATP-sensitive channels are present in ghrelin-producing cells, we hypothesized that meglitinides may affect circulating ghrelin levels in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
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Neutrophils transmigration across umbilical vein endothelial cells (in high insulin medium) with or without K(ATP) channel blockers was performed. Neutrophil migration was quantified by measuring myeloperoxidase, and surface expression of endothelial PECAM-1 was examined using cell-surface enzyme immunoassay.
In this study, we prepared polyclonal antibodies against anti-diabetic drug nateglinide (NTG), and established a sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) to detect NTG in tablets and serum. Two kinds of immunogens were synthesized using ethylcarbodiimide (EDC)/hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and carbonyldiimidazole (CDI)/4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as coupling reagents respectively. When activated by EDC/NHS, more molecules of NTG coupled with carrier protein in immunogens. A horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-H2O2 system with p-iodophenol enhancement was applied in the CLIA analysis. The antibodies in EDC/NHS group showed higher titer, sensitivity and wider detection linear range than those in CDI/DMAP group, and were chosen for next studies. The developed CLIA assay exhibited good selectivity towards NTG among structually similar analogs. The method could detect as low as 0.35 ng mL(-1) NTG in buffer, 2.1 ng mL(-1) NTG in serum and 0.84 ng mL(-1) NTG in tablets. The CLIA method provided consistent results with HPLC method (r=0.9986) in determination of NTG from 5.0 to 400 µg mL(-1). The CLIA method could detect 78 samples in one assay, and the samples need only dilution in pretreatment. As a summary, this research offers a sensitive assay for high-throughout screening of NTG in formulation control and pharmacokinetic studies.
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In Study 1, nateglinide significantly reduced HbA(1c) from baseline (7.6 +/- 0.1% to 6.9 +/- 0.1%; Delta = -0.7 +/- 0.1%, p < 0.001) and compared with placebo (between-group difference = -0.5%, p = 0.004 vs. nateglinide). No hypoglycaemia was reported. In Study 2, combination therapy with nateglinide/metformin significantly reduced HbA(1c) from baseline (7.8 +/- 0.2% to 6.6 +/- 0.1%; Delta = -1.2 +/- 0.2%, p < 0.001), as did glyburide/metformin (7.7 +/- 0.1% to 6.5 +/- 0.1%; Delta = -1.2 +/- 0.1%, p < 0.001). There was no difference between treatments (p = 0.310). One nateglinide/metformin-treated patient experienced a mild hypoglycaemic episode compared with eight episodes in eight patients on glyburide/metformin; one severe episode led to discontinuation. Target HbA(1c) (<7.0%) was achieved by 60% of patients receiving nateglinide (Study 1) and 70% of nateglinide/metformin-treated patients (Study 2).
The new comprehensive substrate-screening method for ABC transporters allowed the identification of 18 new substrates for MRP4.
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Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) frequently occurs among renal transplant recipients (RTR). Reduced early insulin response (EIR) after a meal leads to impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production and subsequently PPHG, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Nateglinide is a rapid acting insulin secretagogue inducing an EIR after a meal. Our main objective was to investigate the safety and effect of nateglinide treatment on postprandial plasma glucose excursions and insulin secretion in RTR with PPHG.
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HbA1c was significantly (P < 0.001) decreased from baseline in both treatment groups (mean changes: nateglinide -0.41%, gliclazide -0.57%), but with no significant difference between treatments. Proportions of patients achieving a reduction of HbA1c >or= 0.5% or an end point HbA1c < 7% were also similar (nateglinide 58.1%, gliclazide 60.2%). Changes from baseline in FPG were similarly significant in both treatment groups (nateglinide -0.63, gliclazide -0.82 mmol/l). Reduction from baseline in maximum postprandial glucose excursion were significant in the nateglinide group only (nateglinide -0.71, gliclazide -0.10 mmol/l; P = 0.037 for difference). Postprandial insulin levels were significantly higher with nateglinide compared with gliclazide. The overall rate of hypoglycaemia events was similar in the nateglinide group compared with the gliclazide group.