The availability of buprenorphine (BUP) provides an alternative approach to the treatment of opioid addiction with methadone, an agent that has many drug-drug interactions when combined with antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, due to limited long-term pharmacokinetic studies in HIV-infected patients, the clinical use of BUP, a CYP450-3A4 substrate, will require that studies be conducted to examine safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics when these drugs are taken for chronic treatment. One clinical approach could include plasma concentration monitoring to avoid under- or overdosing BUP secondary to drug interactions with ART. The measurement of BUP and its active metabolite, norbuprenorphine (NBUP) facilitates the addition of BUP to ART in an attempt to avoid drug toxicity as described in a recent report by Bruce et al. Therefore, our objective was to validate a BUP assay and integrate its application into an ongoing antiretroviral (ARV) plasma concentration monitoring program. A chromatographic method for monitoring BUP and its active metabolite, NBUP was investigated. An assay was developed that would facilitate BUP and ARV measurement from a single 3 mL blood sample (0.75 mL plasma required) in conjunction with a previously validated multiple ARV HPLC method. The method measures BUP and NBUP over the range from 0.25 to 50 ng/mL with mass spectrometry detection. Inter- and intra-assay variation was
In the three patent applications, the impact of changing the pyrimidine core of the rilpivirine (RPV) to a variety of alternative fused cores was explored, culminating in the identification of a series of conformationally restricted compounds with comparable potencies against WT and mutant HIV-1 strains with those of efavirenz (EFV) and RPV, and higher security in the Human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) assay. Areas covered: The present review provides a fused pyrimidine and isoquinoline derivatives as potent HIV-1 NNRTIs, and highlights the conformational restriction strategies in the development of NNRTIs. Expert opinion: The molecular docking analysis of the newly synthesized compounds maintain the classical horseshoe conformation and shares similar binding mode with RPV. The conformational restriction strategies have greatly accelerated the optimization of the DAPY NNRTIs and contribute to finding new chemical entities (NCEs) with favorable druggability.
The World Health Organization Antiretroviral Treatment Guidelines recommend phasing-out stavudine because of its risk of long-term toxicity. There are two mutational pathways of stavudine resistance with different implications for zidovudine and tenofovir cross-resistance, the primary candidates for replacing stavudine. However, because resistance testing is rarely available in resource-limited settings, it is critical to identify the cross-resistance patterns associated with first-line stavudine failure.
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The prescription of patients' tailored anti-infectious treatments is the ultimate goal of pharmacogenetics/genomics applied to antimicrobial treatments, providing a basis for personalized medicine. Despite the efforts to screen Africans for alleles underlying defective metabolism for a panel of different drugs, still more research is necessary to clarify the interplay between host genetic variation and treatments' response. HIV is a major infectious disease in sub-Saharan African countries, and the main prescribed anti-HIV combination therapy includes efavirenz (EFV) or nevirapine (NVP). The two drugs are both mainly metabolised by cytochrome P450 2B6 liver enzyme (CYP2B6). Defective variants of CYP2B6 gene, leading to higher drug exposure with subsequent possible side effects and low compliance, are well known. However, little is known about CYP2B6 alleles in Cameroon where only one study was done on this subject. The main objective of the present work is to assess, in a subset of HIV-exposed subjects from Dschang in West Cameroon, the prevalence of two SNPs in the CYP2B6 gene: 516G>T (rs3745274) and 983T>C (rs28399499), both associated to a defective EFV and NVP metabolism. We analyzed 168 DNA samples collected during two cross-sectional surveys performed in Dschang, West Cameroon. In the population studied the observed allele frequencies of 516G>T and 983T>C were 44.35% (95%CI, 36.84-51.86%) and 12.80% (95%CI, 7.75-17.85%), respectively. Moreover, concerning the CYP2B6 expected phenotypes, 28.57% of the population showed a poor metaboliser phenotype, while 27.38% and 44.05% showed an extensive (wild-type) and an intermediate metaboliser phenotype, respectively. Here we found that an important fraction of the subjects is carrying EFV/NVP poor metaboliser alleles. Our findings could help to improve the knowledge about the previewed efficacy of anti-HIV drug therapy in Cameroon. Finally, we designed a new method of detection for the 983T>C genetic variation that can be applied in resource-limited laboratories.
These guidelines are part of the French Experts' recommendations for the management of people living with HIV/AIDS, which were made public and submitted to the French health authorities in September 2013. The objective was to provide updated recommendations for antiretroviral treatment (ART) of HIV-positive adults. Guidelines included the following topics: when to start, what to start, specific situations for the choice of the first session of antiretroviral therapy, optimization of antiretroviral therapy after virologic suppression, and management of virologic failure.
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The FDA recently approved efavirenz (Sustiva, DMP 266), which is a powerful anti-HIV drug when used in combination therapy. Efavirenz is believed to be as potent as Indinavir in many cases. Testing positive for marijuana use is a possible side effect of using efavirenz, but this false positive can be verified with a test that uses gas chromatography.
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To evaluate the effects of ketoconazole, rifampicin and efavirenz on the pharmacokinetics of telaprevir in healthy volunteers.
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Buprenorphine/naloxone alone and often in the presence of evidence for recent use of cocaine did not significantly alter the QT interval (p = 0.612). Buprenorphine/naloxone in combination with ARVs caused a statistically, but not clinically, significant increase (p = 0.005) in the QT interval. Subjects receiving buprenorphine/naloxone in combination with either delavirdine or ritonavir had the greatest increase in QTc intervals.
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Antiretroviral-naive men (n=213) were randomized to receive nelfinavir, efavirenz, or both plus either zidovudine and lamivudine or stavudine and didanosine. Patients underwent measurements of metabolic parameters, including determination of free testosterone level by equilibrium dialysis and bioelectrical impedance analysis, over a 64-week period.