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The objective of our study was to investigate how Mg2+ enters mammalian cardiac cells. During this work, we found evidence for a previously undescribed route for Mg2+ entry, and now provide a preliminary account of its properties. Changes in Mg2+ influx into rat ventricular myocytes were deduced from changes in intracellular ionized Mg2+ concentration ([fMg2+]i) measured from the fluorescence of mag-fura-2 loaded into isolated cells. Superfusion of myocytes at 37 degrees C with Ca2+-free solutions with both reduced [Na+] and raised [Mg2+] caused myocytes to load with Mg2+. Uptake was seen with solutions containing 5 mm Mg2+ and 95 mm Na+, and increased linearly with increasing extracellular [Mg2+] or decreasing extracellular [Na+]. It was very sensitive to temperature (Q(10) > 9, 25--37 degrees C), was observed even in myocytes with very low Na+ contents, and stopped abruptly when external [Na+] was returned to normal. Uptake was greatly reduced by imipramine or KB-R7943 if these were added when [fMg2+]i was close to the physiological level, but was unaffected if they were applied when [fMg2+]i was above 2 mm. Uptake was also reduced by depolarizing the membrane potential by increasing extracellular [K+] or voltage clamp to 0 mV. We suggest that initial Mg2+ uptake may involve several transporters, including reversed Na+-Mg2+ antiport and, depending on the exact conditions, reversed Na+-Ca2+ antiport. The ensuing rise of [fMg2+]i, in conjunction with reduced [Na+], may then activate a new Mg2+ transporter that is highly sensitive to temperature, is insensitive to imipramine or KB-R7943, but is inactivated by depolarization.
In order to relieve anxiety and depression accompanying stress, physicians resort to tricyclic antidepressants, such as imipramine. We had previously shown that imipramine reversed stress-induced social avoidance behavior, and down-regulated microglial activation 24days after stress cessation. To further characterize the effects of imipramine on stress induced neuroimmune dysregulation and associated changes in behavior, the aims of this study were to determine if imipramine 1) ameliorated stress-induced inflammation in the periphery and central nervous system, and 2) prevented stress related anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. C57BL/6 mice were treated with imipramine (15mg/kg) in their drinking water, and exposed to repeated social defeat (RSD). Imipramine attenuated stress-induced corticosterone and IL-6 responses in plasma. Imipramine decreased the percentage of monocytes and granulocytes in the bone marrow and circulation. However, imipramine did not prevent splenomegaly, stress-related increased percentage of granulocytes in this organ, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spleen, following RSD. Moreover, imipramine abrogated the accumulation of macrophages in the brain in mice exposed to RSD. Imipramine blocked neuroinflammatory signaling and prevented stress-related anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. These data support the notion that pharmacomodulation of the monoaminergic system, besides exerting anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, may have therapeutic effects as a neuroimmunomodulator during stress.
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The effect of chronic imipramine (IMI) or electroconvulsive shock (ECS) treatment on the expression of group Ia metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a) was studied in the rat hippocampus by an immunohistochemical method, using a specific monoclonal antibody. It was found that both those treatments increased the number of mGluR1a immunoreactive neurons in a pyramidal layer of the CA3 hippocampal field. Moreover, IMI, but not ECS, increased the density of mGluR1 a positive neurons in the hilus. The obtained results indicate a possible influence of the antidepressive treatment on the mGluR1a expression in some hippocampal fields.
Oxytocin is a neuromodulator with antidepressant-like effects. In vitro, oxytocin is rapidly cleaved by insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). Oxytocin metabolites are known to exert strong central activities that are different from the effects of the parent molecule. Our goal is to investigate in vivo whether IRAP deletion modifies the antidepressant-like effects of oxytocin. Male and female C57Bl/6 mice, IRAP wild-type (IRAP(+/+)) and knock-out (IRAP(-/-)) mice were injected subcutaneously with saline, oxytocin or oxytocin combined with angiotensin IV. One hour after injection, immobility was timed during a 5 min forced swim that was preceded by an open field to study locomotor behaviour. Oxytocin induced antidepressant-like effects in male (0.25 mg/kg oxytocin) and female (0.15 mg/kg oxytocin) C57Bl/6 mice subjected to the forced swim test. Oxytocin did not influence locomotor behaviour in mice, as shown with the open field. These findings were reproduced in transgenic male (aged 3-6 months) and female (aged 12-18 months) IRAP(+/+) mice. However, the major findings of our study were that the antidepressant-like effect was reversed in angiotensin IV treated IRAP(+/+) mice and was completely absent in age- and gender-matched IRAP(-/-) mice. The lack of an antidepressant-like effect of oxytocin in young male and middle-aged female IRAP(-/-) mice attributes an important role to IRAP in mediating this effect.
The possible teratologic effect of imipramine hydrochloride (IHC) was investigated in pregnanct bonnet and rhesus monkeys. Oral IHC was administered twice daily between Days 23-45 of pregnancy, for either 1-3 days or 18-22 days, at 1, 2, and 10 times the recommended human dose. No teratogenic effects were observed with either acute or chronic treatment. The incidence of early abortion was 9% in the treated groups, compared with 3% in controls. Clinical signs of maternal toxici ty were observed at the high dose level, though symptoms disappeared within 24 hours of the last treatment. It is concluded that the teratogenic potential of IHC is low in humans when used at recommended doses.
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Modern treatment of mental depression started with the availability of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants. These drugs also contributed to the early development of psychopharmacology. Attempts to improve the anti-tuberculous action of the hydrazine derivative isoniazid by developing derivatives thereof led to the synthesis of iproniazid. Its introduction as the first modern antidepressant was based on three unexpected actions of the drug: MAO-inhibition, 'reversal' of reserpine-induced sedation, and the presence of psychostimulation as a clinical side effect in man. However, the initial success of iproniazid and other MAO inhibitors, hydrazides and non-hydrazides, was curtailed by the occurrence of undesirable side effects such as potentiation of the blood-pressure elevating action of food amines. The tricyclic antidepressants were a development of the class of antihistamines, one of which, chlorpromazine, showed neuroleptic activity. A congener of this compound, imipramine, was discovered by clinical observation to have unexpected antidepressant effects. The clinical success of this drug (which is still in use) led to the development of a successful series of other tricyclic and non-tricyclic antidepressants. Progress in the elucidation of possible mechanisms of the action of the tricyclic compounds has helped this development. Recent advances in basic research have also induced a revival of MAO-inhibitors since, due to the discovery of MAO-subtypes, inhibitors with higher specificity and fewer undesirable side effects are now available.
Patterns of symptoms change were examined in 35 unipolar depressed outpatients treated with either cognitive therapy or pharmacotherapy (imipramine HCl). Cross-lagged panel analyses were used to evaluate the temporal relationships among changes in views of the self, hopelessness, mood, motivation and vegetative symptoms during treatment weeks 1-4. During cognitive therapy improvements in hopelessness, views of the self and mood generally preceded changes in vegetative and motivational symptoms. On the other hand, no consistent pattern of change was associated with pharmacotherapy. While these results are compatible with the notion that cognitive therapy initially alters negative thinking and mood, which secondarily leads to improvements in vegetative and motivational symptoms, further studies with a placebo or wait-list group are needed to determine if this is a unique effect of cognitive therapy.
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The efficacy and safety of fluvoxamine maleate, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was compared with placebo and imipramine in patients with major depressive disorder. Previous literature has cited a dose range of 100 to 300 mg/day of fluvoxamine maleate for the treatment of major depression; however, this study demonstrates that a dose range of 50 to 150 mg/day is as effective as imipramine (80-240 mg/day). After a 1- to 2-week, single-blind, placebo washout phase, 150 depressed outpatients were randomized to double-blind treatment with fluvoxamine maleate (50-150 mg/day), imipramine (80-240 mg/day), or placebo for 6 weeks. Fluvoxamine produced a significant therapeutic benefit over placebo (p < or = 0.05) as assessed by the total score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; imipramine (80-240 mg/day) produced similar results. The secondary outcome variables (i.e., Clinical Global Impression severity of illness item and 56-Item Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression factor) also showed significant differences between fluvoxamine maleate and placebo during three of the four final weeks of the study. Both fluvoxamine maleate and imipramine appeared to be safe and well tolerated by the majority of patients. As expected from the pharmacology of these agents, the imipramine groups reported more anticholinergic effects (dry mouth, dizziness, and urinary retention) and electrocardiographic effects, whereas the fluvoxamine group reported more nausea, somnolence, and abnormal ejaculation. The majority of these adverse events were mild to moderate and, with the exception of dry mouth (imipramine) and abnormal ejaculation (fluvoxamine), were transient. The data clearly demonstrate the antidepressant activity and tolerability of fluvoxamine maleate (50-150 mg/day) as compared with placebo; it is also as effective as the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (80-240 mg/day) in patients with major depressive disorder.
CBD induces antidepressant-like effects comparable to those of imipramine. These effects of CBD were probably mediated by activation of 5-HT(1A) receptors.