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Tofranil

Generic Tofranil is a member of the family of drugs called tricyclic antidepressants. Generic Tofranil is used to treat depression. Generic Tofranil is also used on a short-term basis, along with behavioral therapies, to treat bed-wetting in children aged 6 and older. Sometimes Generic Tofranil is prescribed to treat bulimia, attention deficit disorder in children, obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.

Other names for this medication:
Antidep, Antideprin, Depramine, Depranil, Deprinol, Depsonil, Ethipramine, Imavate, Imidol, Imipramin, Imipramina, Imipramini, Imipraminum, Imiprex, Impril, Janimine, Melipramin, Melipramine, Mepramin, Norfranil, Novopramine, Pinor, Primonil, Pryleugan, Talpramin, Tipramine, Tofranil mite, Tolerade, Venefon

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Also known as:  Imipramine.

Description

Generic Tofranil is used to treat depression. Generic Tofranil is also used on a short-term basis, along with behavioral therapies, to treat bed-wetting in children aged 6 and older. Sometimes Generic Tofranil is prescribed to treat bulimia, attention deficit disorder in children, obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.

Generic Tofranil is a member of the family of drugs called tricyclic antidepressants.

Tofranil is also known as Imipramine, Antideprin, Deprenil, Deprimin, Deprinol, Depsonil, Dynaprin, Eupramin, Imipramil, Irmin, Janimine, Melipramin, Surplix, Antidep, Apo-Imipramine, Chrytemin, Daypress, Depsol, Ethipramine, Fronil, Imidol, Imimine, Imine, Imiprex, Imiprin, Impril, Medipramine, Melipramine, Mipralin, Novopramine, Primonil, Pryleugan, Sermonil, Sipramine, Talpramin, Tofnil, Tofranil-PM, Venefon.

Generic name of Generic Tofranil is Imipramine hydrochloride.

Brand names of Generic Tofranil are Tofranil, Tofranil-PM.

Dosage

Take Generic Tofranil orally.

Take Generic Tofranil with or without food.

For adults

The usual starting dose is 75 mg a day. The maximum daily dose is 200 mg.

For children

Total daily dosages for children should not exceed 2.5 mg for each 2.2 pounds of the child's weight. Doses usually begin at 25 mg per day. This amount should be taken an hour before bedtime. If needed, this dose may be increased after 1 week to 50 mg (ages 6 through 11) or 75 mg (ages 12 and up), taken in one dose at bedtime or divided into 2 doses, 1 taken at mid-afternoon and 1 at bedtime.

Aged people

The usual dosage should start with 25 to 50 mg per day. The dose may be increased as necessary, but effective dosages usually do not exceed 100 mg a day.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Tofranil suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Tofranil and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Tofranil overdosage: agitation, bluish skin, convulsions, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, drowsiness, heart failure, high fever, involuntary writhing or jerky movements, irregular or rapid heartbeat, lack of coordination, low blood pressure, overactive reflexes, restlessness, rigid muscles, shock, stupor, sweating, vomiting.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Tofranil are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Tofranil if you are allergic to Generic Tofranil components.

Be very careful with Generic Tofranil if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take Generic Tofranil if you are recovering from a recent heart attack or take MAO inhibitors, such as the antidepressants Nardil and Parnate.

Be very careful with Generic Tofranil if you have diabetes, hypoglycemia, a history of mental disorders.

Be very careful with Generic Tofranil if you are taking albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin), antidepressants that act on serotonin, including Prozac, Paxil and Zoloft, antipsychotic drugs such as Mellaril and chlorpromazine, barbiturates such as Nembutal and Seconal, blood pressure medications such as Catapres, Carbamazepine (Tegretol), cimetidine (Tagamet), decongestants such as Sudafed, drugs that control spasms, such as Cogentin, Epinephrine (EpiPen), Flecainide (Tambocor), Guanethidine, Methylphenidate (Ritalin), Norepinephrine, other antidepressants such as Elavil and Pamelor, Phenytoin (Dilantin), Propafenone (Rythmol), Quinidine, thyroid medications such as Synthroid, tranquilizers and sleep aids such as Halcion, Xanax, and Valium.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not participate in any activities that require full alertness if you are unsure about your ability.

Try to stay out of the sun as much as possible.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Tofranil taking suddenly.

tofranil bedwetting reviews

The distribution of the beta 1 (beta 1) and beta 2 (beta 2) subtypes of the beta-adrenergic receptor was examined in rat and nondiseased control human tissue. The distribution of the beta 1 and beta 2 receptors was also examined in schizophrenic cases, with additional studies in schizophrenic suicide and nonschizophrenic suicide cases. Scatchard analysis of the binding of [125I]iodopindolol (IPIN) to cortical membranes showed a similar Kd in human (177 pM) and rat (161 pM), but a lower maximum binding site (Bmax) in the human tissue (18.7 fmol/mg protein and 55.6 fmol/mg protein). For the autoradiographic studies [125I]IPIN was used to visualize both subtypes (total) or was displaced with the selective beta 1-receptor antagonist ICI-89,406 to visualize beta 2 sites, or with the selective beta 2-receptor antagonist ICI-118,551 to visualize beta 1 sites. Important differences in the regional distribution of the two subtypes of the beta-adrenergic receptors were noted between rat and human. In the nucleus accumbens and ventral putamen (ventral striatum), a patchy distribution of beta 1 receptors was observed that was not evident in the rat. These patches were aligned with markers of the matrix compartment of the striatum. The schizophrenic cases showed significant increases in the labeling of the beta 1-receptor patches with [125I]IPIN. In contrast to the frontal cortex of the nondisease controls, the parietal and temporal cortex showed a high ratio of beta 1 to beta 2 receptors and a highly laminar organization of the subtypes. [125I]IPIN binding to beta 1 receptors was highest in the external laminae with the reverse gradient for the beta 2 subtype. The medial temporal cortex displayed an alteration in the ratio of the 2 subtypes of the beta-adrenergic receptor, with the parahippocampus and hippocampus of the human, in contrast to the rat brain, predominantly expressing the beta 2 receptor. Moreover, there were consistently higher densities of beta 2 receptors in the hippocampus of the right hemisphere than the left hemisphere of the nondisease controls. There was not a left and right hemispheric asymmetry of beta 2 receptors in the hippocampus of elderly schizophrenics or in young schizophrenics who committed suicide. The asymmetry was evident in nonschizophrenic suicides, suggesting that the lack of asymmetry in the hippocampus of schizophrenics is evident early in the disease process. Thus limbic structures show alterations in the patterning of beta 1 and beta 2 receptors in the schizophrenic cases.

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The higher increase of the metabolites as compared with the parent compounds can be explained by a paroxetine-induced inhibition of the liver enzyme cytochrome P4502D6, which catalyses the second step of the TCA metabolism, i.e. the hydroxylation of the metabolites. Blood levels should be meticulously monitored, if TCAs are combined with paroxetine.

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The effect of various drugs on the extracellular concentration of dopamine in two terminal dopaminergic areas, the nucleus accumbens septi (a limbic area) and the dorsal caudate nucleus (a subcortical motor area), was studied in freely moving rats by using brain dialysis. Drugs abused by humans (e.g., opiates, ethanol, nicotine, amphetamine, and cocaine) increased extracellular dopamine concentrations in both areas, but especially in the accumbens, and elicited hypermotility at low doses. On the other hand, drugs with aversive properties (e.g., agonists of kappa opioid receptors, U-50,488, tifluadom, and bremazocine) reduced dopamine release in the accumbens and in the caudate and elicited hypomotility. Haloperidol, a neuroleptic drug, increased extracellular dopamine concentrations, but this effect was not preferential for the accumbens and was associated with hypomotility and sedation. Drugs not abused by humans [e.g., imipramine (an antidepressant), atropine (an antimuscarinic drug), and diphenhydramine (an antihistamine)] failed to modify synaptic dopamine concentrations. These results provide biochemical evidence for the hypothesis that stimulation of dopamine transmission in the limbic system might be a fundamental property of drugs that are abused.

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There is an increasing body of evidence suggesting that GABA plays an important role in the therapeutic effects of antidepressant/antipanic drugs. Phenelzine and imipramine are efficacious in the treatment of depression and panic disorder and phenelzine has been reported to elevate GABA levels while imipramine enhances GABA release in rat brains. In the present study, using a multiprobe quantitative solution hybridization assay, we measured the steady-state levels of mRNAs that encode glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67 and GAD65), the GABA transporter GAT-1 and GABA transaminase (GABA-T) in rat cortex after treatment with constant infusion (via osmotic minipumps) of phenelzine or imipramine for a short-term (3 days) or long-term (21 days) period. We found that none of the treatments gave rise to significant changes in the steady-state levels of mRNAs encoding GAD67, GAD65 or GABA-T at any time point. The steady-state levels of GAT-1 mRNA were increased significantly (23%) after long-term, but not by short-term, treatment with phenelzine. Imipramine treatment, short- or long-term, did not alter the steady-state levels of GAT-1 mRNA. These results suggest that the GABA enhancing effects of phenelzine or imipramine in rat cortex do not affect the steady-state levels of mRNAs that encode GAD67, GAD65 and GABA-T. Further, the previously observed increases in GABA levels or GABA release induced by these drugs are probably not a consequence of changes in the expression of these genes.

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Although serotonin receptor and cytoarchitectonic alterations are reported in prefrontal cortex (PFC) in suicide and depression, no study has considered binding relative to neuron density. Therefore, we measured neuron density and serotonin transporter (SERT), 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A binding in matched suicides and controls. Suicides and normal controls (n=15 matched pairs) were psychiatrically characterized. Neuron density and binding were determined in dorsal [Brodmann area (BA) 9] and ventral (BA 47) PFC by stereology and quantitative autoradiography in near-adjacent sections. Binding index was defined as the ratio of receptor binding to neuron density. Suicides had lower neuron density in the gyrus of both areas. The binding index was lower for SERT in BA 47 but not in BA9; the 5-HT1A binding index was higher in BA 9 but not in BA 47, while the 5-HT2A binding index was not different between groups. SERT binding was lower in suicides in BA 47 but not BA 9, while 5-HT1A binding was higher in BA 9 but not BA 47. SERT binding negatively correlated with 5-HT1A binding in BA 47 in suicides. Neuron density decreased with age. The 5-HT1A binding index was higher in females than males. We found lower neuron density and lower SERT binding index in both PFC regions in suicides. More 5-HT1A binding with less SERT binding and the negative correlation in depressed suicides suggests post-synaptic receptor up-regulation, and it is independent of the difference in neuron density. Thus, abnormalities in both cortical neurons and in their serotonergic innervation are present in suicides and future studies will need to determine whether cortical changes reflect the trophic effect of altered serotonin innervation.

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Using 7% or greater weight change as the measure of clinical significance, 4.3% of SSRI-treated patients had lost weight at any point in the acute phase versus 1.7% of those treated with nefazodone (p = .017). However, at any point during the long-term phase, significantly more SSRI-treated patients than nefazodone-treated patients showed a significant increase in body weight (17.9% vs. 8.3%; p = .003). At any point in the acute phase, significantly more imipramine-treated patients than nefazodone-treated patients had a 7% or greater increase in body weight (4.9% vs. 0.9%; p = .027), and for the long-term phase the comparison yielded 24.5% versus 9.5%. The difference during the long-term phase was statistically significant in women (p = .017), but not in men (p = .078) due to the small numbers of men in each group.

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We have used a human SCLC cell line and fetal hamster pulmonary neuroendocrine cells with in vitro kinase activation assays and western blots to assess the levels of expression and activation of Raf-1, MAPK and c-myc to address this issue.

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Imipramine serum protein binding was measured by equilibrium dialysis in healthy subjects (88 women and 57 men; age 21 to 79 yr) who were relatively evenly distributed according to age, sex, smoking habits, and oral contraceptive use. Average free fraction was 10.9 +/- 1.4%. Interindividual variation in degree of binding was less than 100%, the free fraction varying from 8% to 14.7%. Women age 30 to 39 yr had significantly lower binding than all other female age groups and lower binding than men age 30 to 39 yr. Oral contraceptive use and smoking habits did not correlate to degree of binding. Serum concentrations of 12 proteins were measured in subjects with the highest binding (n = 17) and lower binding (n = 18). The concentration of orosomucoid, complement C3c, and apolipoprotein B was higher in the high-binding group than in the low-binding group. Since covariation among concentrations of these three proteins was modest, the data indicate a separate significance of the three proteins. The binding of 3H-imipramine did not correlate with the albumin concentration.

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The effects of chronic clomipramine, imipramine and clorgyline on 5-HT1C receptors were studied in discrete brain regions, in male Wistar rats, using [3H]mesulergine to label the receptor binding sites. Clorgyline treatment significantly reduced [3H]mesulergine binding (Bmax values) in both the hypothalamus and striatum compared to saline-treated animals. There were no differences in the maximum number of [3H]mesulergine binding sites following clorgyline in the hippocampus, frontal cortex or brainstem. Neither clomipramine or imipramine treatment resulted in any significant changes in 5-HT1C receptor number in the brain regions examined here. Furthermore, the Kd values (receptor affinity) for [3H]mesulergine binding were not significantly different comparing treatment groups to control animals. The significant changes in discrete brain regions following chlorgyline treatment suggest that 5-HT1C receptors may be involved in the clinical efficacy for the treatment of depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

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Dietary supplement use has increased during the past decade. Epidemiologic studies suggest that patients turn to dietary supplements because of a reluctance to take prescription medications or a lack of satisfaction with the results. They often perceive dietary supplements to be a safer or more natural alternative. Patients with mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders, are among those who use dietary supplements. St. John's Wort is used to treat depression. Clinical studies comparing dietary supplements with low-dose antidepressants (maprotiline, amitriptyline, or imipramine at 75 mg/day) or high-dose antidepressants (imipramine at 150 mg/day) find no significant difference between treatments. Kava kava is used to treat anxiety. Clinical trials demonstrate it to be superior to placebo, and roughly equivalent to oxazepam 15 mg/day or bromazepam 9 mg/day. Agents discussed for use in sleep disorders include melatonin, valerian, 5-hydroxytryptamine, catnip, chamomile, gotu kola, hops, L-tryptophan, lavender, passionflower, skullcap, and valerian. Familiarity with the evidence for use and the possible resulting risks can help health professionals to guide patient decisions regarding use of dietary supplements.

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Despite the high prevalence and significant morbidity associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents, there are limited and conflicting data to guide psychopharmacologic interventions. With these considerations in mind, we sought to summarize the current evidence for psychopharmacologic interventions in youth with PTSD.

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tofranil brand name 2015-08-01

Repeated oral administration of 20 mg/kg imipramine elevated the level of 5-HT2C mRNA in the rat brain. Hybridization signals in nearly all regions stained by digoxigenin-labeled antisense cRNA probe, such as the hippocampus, choroid plexus, habenular nucleus, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, were more intense following imipramine treatment. These results suggest that Lanoxin Drug Classification long-term treatment with imipramine stimulates 5-HT2C receptor gene expression.

recommended tofranil dosage 2016-12-16

Present study suggest that changes in response to the post dexamethasone plasma cortisol levels in the patients of major depression receiveing anti depressants (Imipramine and Amitryptyline) might represent a laboratory marker of clinical progress. We estimated post dexamethasone plasma cortisol levels weekly in thirty hospitalized patients during Alesse Dosage Forms pro-treatment, post-treatment and drug free post-treatment wash out period. In most of the cases normalization of the post dexamethasone cortisol levels coincided with clinical improvement and failure to normalize was often associated with poorer clinical recovery. No significant difference was observed in the treatment response between imipramine and amitryptyline based on post dexamethasone plasma cortisol levels.

tofranil overdose 2015-02-14

In the dark phase, the effects of the psychotropic drugs on the contents of melatonin, serotonin (5-HT) and N-acetylserotonin (NAS) in rat pineal gland were examined. The pineal gland was removed at a certain period of time after subcutaneous injection of the drugs. 5-HT, NAS and melatonin contents in the pineal gland were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. A dose-dependent decrease was observed for melatonin content in the administration of diazepam (DZP), hydroxyzine (HYZ), chlorpromazine (CPZ) or haloperidol (HPD). When imipramine (IPM) or amitriptyline (APL) was given to rats, pineal 5-HT content was significantly decreased. On the other hand, the administration of Elavil Overdose IPM or APL caused increases in pineal NAS and melatonin. Furthermore, the administration of phenytoin (PYT) revealed no changes in the content of pineal indoleamines. These results suggest that the psychotropic drugs widely used in clinical applications could cause significant changes in pineal indoleamine content.

tofranil syrup 2017-09-30

Double-divisor spectra derivative and partial least squares methods were developed for content uniformity and dissolution tests in binary or ternary mixtures. The simultaneous determinations of perphenazine (PER) combined with amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMI) and/or imipramine hydrochloride (IMI) have been accomplished using the information of the absorption spectra of appropriate solutions. The double-divisor method is based on the use of the first derivative of the ratio spectrum obtained by dividing the absorption spectrum of the ternary mixture PER-AMI-IMI by a standard spectrum resulted from the addition of two of the three analytes in equal concentrations. The concentration of each component is then determined from their respective calibration graphs established by measuring the ratio derivative analytical signal at a specific wavelength. In this method, the linear determination ranges were of 3.65-18.24 microg/mL for PER, 4.32-21.60 microg/mL for AMI, and 4.83-24.19 microg/mL for IMI. The results were compared with those obtained by partial least squares multivariate calibration (PLS) method pre-treated by a wavelet compression-orthogonal signal correction (W-OSC) filter in zero-order derivative spectra. The calibration model was evaluated by internal validation (cross-validation) and by external validation over synthetic mixtures, content uniformity and dissolution tests. According to the dissolution Claritin Syrup Ingredients profile test more than 95% of the three substances were dissolved within 10 min. The results from both techniques were statistically compared with each other and can be satisfactorily used for quantitative analysis and dissolution tests of multicomponent tablets.

tofranil medication 2015-05-22

There has been little systematic study of the types of sexual dysfunction produced by antidepressant medication or of the frequency with which this type of adverse effect occurs. The authors report results of Parlodel Generic a double-blind study in which the effects of imipramine, phenelzine, and placebo on specific aspects of sexual function were assessed in depressed outpatients before and after 6 weeks of treatment. Both active treatments were associated with a high incidence of adverse changes in sexual function and produced significantly more adverse effects on sexual function than placebo. Orgasm and ejaculation were impaired to a greater extent than erection. Adverse sexual function changes secondary to antidepressant medication occurred frequently in both men and women, although men reported a higher incidence. Antidepressant-related sexual dysfunction may be of clinical importance for medication compliance in view of current recommendations that antidepressants be administered for longer periods as maintenance therapy or for prophylaxis.

tofranil medication information 2015-03-18

1 Antidepressant drugs produce significant changes in human brain function as reflected in the quantitatively analysed EEG. Two main types of pharmaco-EEG profiles may be differentiated: a thymeretic (desipramine-like) profile characterised mainly by an alpha increase suggesting activating properties and a thymoleptic (imipramine- or amitriptyline-like) profile showing a concomitant increase of slow and fast activities and a decrease in alpha activity indicating also sedative qualities. A small number of compounds exhibit still different profiles. 2 Aside from determining the type of EEG changes, the pharmaco-EEG method seems to be of value in determining time and dose efficacy relations at the target organ, the human brain. Moreover, the relationships between pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics may be determined. 3 Fluvoxamine, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor from the new class of 2-aminoethyloximethers of aralkylketones, produced a typical thymoleptic pharmaco-EEG profile after oral doses Prilosec Pill of 75 mg in a double-blind placebo-controlled study involving 10 healthy volunteers. Fluvoxamine (75 mg) induced less augmentation of slow activity than 75 mg imipramine, indicating less sedative properties of fluvoxamine than imipramine. 4 After 75 mg fluvoxamine psychometric tests demonstrated a tendency towards an improvement in attention, concentration, psychomotor activity, after-effect and mood and a significant increase in critical flicker fusion frequency as compared with placebo. Comparison with the reference drug, 75 mg imipramine, revealed a significant superiority of fluvoxamine regarding concentration, psychomotor activity, tapping, reaction time, mood and affectivity. 5 Side-effects (mostly tiredness) were seen in five out of 10 subjects after 75 mg fluvoxamine and in eight out of 10 subjects after 75 mg imipramine. There were no clinically relevant changes in pulse, systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

tofranil pm reviews 2016-10-19

A small and very simple Eldepryl Buy electromembrane extraction probe (EME-probe) was developed and coupled directly to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and this system was used to monitor in real time in vitro metabolism by rat liver microsomes of drug substances from a small reaction (incubation) chamber (37 °C). The drug-related substances were continuously extracted from the 1.0 mL metabolic reaction mixture and into the EME-probe by an electrical potential of 2.5 V. The extraction probe consisted of a 1-mm long and 350-μm ID thin supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether. The drugs and formed metabolites where extracted through the SLM and directly into a 3 μL min(-1) flow of 60 mM HCOOH inside the probe serving as the acceptor solution. The acceptor solution was directed into the ESI-MS-system, and the MS continuously monitored the drug-related substances extracted by the EME-probe. The extraction efficiency of the EME-probe was dependant on the applied electrical potential and the length of the SLM, and these parameters as well as the volume of the reaction chamber were set to the values mentioned above to avoid serious depletion from the reaction chamber (soft extraction). Soft extraction was mandatory in order not to affect the reaction kinetics by sample composition changes induced by the EME-probe. The EME-probe/MS-system was used to establish kinetic profiles for the in vitro metabolism of promethazine, amitriptyline and imipramine as model substances.

tofranil with alcohol 2016-04-04

The interaction between doxepin, a member of the tricyclic antidepressant Zocor And Alcohol (TCA) class of drugs, with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) was investigated using NMR. Several TCAs have been reported to form a complex with beta-CD having 1:1 stoichiometry. Previous results from UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence measurements, and molecular modeling indicated that for imipramine, desipramine, and amitriptyline, the TCA aliphatic tail is included in the cyclodextrin cavity with apparently no interaction of the tricyclic ring. An alternative view of the doxepin-beta-CD complex is presented in this work using analysis of complexation-induced chemical shifts (CICSs), the method of continuous variation (Job's analysis), and analysis of ROESY spectra. The Job's plot derived from the NMR spectral data confirms that the complex formed has 1:1 stoichiometry. The largest changes in the CICS data were observed for the aromatic protons of one of the doxepin rings, with much smaller chemical shift changes observed for the protons of the other aromatic ring and the doxepin tail. Perhaps the most significant evidence for inclusion of the doxepin tricyclic ring is the strong ROESY cross peaks between the doxepin aromatic resonances and the protons located inside the beta-CD cavity. Changes in the doxepin (1)H NMR spectrum and the behavior of ROESY exchange cross peaks suggest that inclusion complex formation decreases the rate of internal motions of doxepin.