tricor order forms
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), which is highly expressed in liver, plays key roles in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is the principal inducer of acute phase response (APR) gene expression. In the present study, we demonstrate that chronic treatment with the PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate fully prevents the IL-6-induced APR gene expression in wild-type but not in PPARalpha-deficient mice. PPARalpha prevents the IL-6-induced expression of the positive APR genes fibrinogen-alpha, -beta, -gamma, haptoglobulin, and serum amyloid A and the IL-6-induced suppression of the negative APR gene, major urinary protein. Furthermore, the effect of PPARalpha on the APR gene expression does not simply consist in a delayed systemic response to IL-6 but occurs directly at the transcriptional level. This global suppression of acute phase gene transcription may be explained by two PPARalpha-dependent in vivo effects: 1) PPARalpha activation results in the down-regulation of the IL-6 receptor components gp80 and gp130 in the liver, thereby reducing the phosphorylation and activation of the downstream transcription factors STAT3 and c-Jun that transduce the IL-6 signal; and 2) PPARalpha reduces the basal expression of the transcription factors CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-alpha, -beta, -delta, which are responsible for immediate and maintained transcription of APR genes. A similar global effect of fenofibrate on acute phase protein expression is observed in hyperlipidemic patients chronically treated with fenofibrate, which displayed decreased plasma concentrations of the positive APR proteins fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, plasminogen, and alpha2-macroglobulin and increased plasma concentrations of the negative APR albumin, underlining the clinical significance of our findings.
tricor generic fenofibrate
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate oral bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug fenofibrate when liposomes containing a bile salt were used as oral drug delivery systems. Liposomes composed of soybean phosphotidylcholine (SPC) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) were prepared by a dry-film dispersing method coupled with sonication and homogenization. Several properties of the liposomes, including particle size, entrapment efficiency and membrane fluidity, were extensively characterized. In vitro release experiments indicated that no more than 20% of total fenofibrate was released from SPC/cholesterol (CL) and SPC/SDC liposomes at 2 h, in contrast with near complete release for micronized fenofibrate capsules. Strikingly, in vivo measurements of pharmacokinetics and bioavailability demonstrated higher rates of fenofibrate absorption from both SPC/SDC and SPC/CL liposomes than micronized fenofibrate. The bioavailability of SPC/SDC and SPC/CL liposomes was 5.13- and 3.28-fold higher, respectively, than that of the micronized fenofibrate. The disparity between oral bioavailability and in vitro release for liposomes strongly suggests alternative absorption mechanisms rather than enhanced release. Importantly, SPC/SDC liposomes exhibited a 1.57-fold increase in bioavailability relative to SPC/CL liposomes, indicating that liposomes containing bile salts may be used to enhance oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.
Expansion of adipose tissue in the orbits is a key feature of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Recent evidence shows that orbital fibroblasts are committed to differentiate into adipocytes under appropriate stimuli. Rosiglitazone, an agonist of the nuclear hormone receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is able to induce both differentiation of orbital fibroblasts into mature adipocytes and expression of the TSH receptor (TSHr) gene. Several studies have suggested an important role of the high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) gene in adipocytic cell growth and development. To investigate further the association between adipogenesis-related genes and orbital fibroblasts, we treated fibroblasts from Graves' ophthalmopathy (FGOs) and from normal orbital tissues with fenofibrate, a specific agonist for PPARalpha. We then evaluated the expression of the PPARalpha, PPARgamma2, HMGA2, leptin and TSHr genes before and after 24 h of fenofibrate treatment, using semiquantitative and real-time PCR. For up to 96 h after exposure to fenofibrate, FGOs differentiated into adipocytes. PPARalpha and PPARgamma2 were expressed more in FGOs than in normal cultures, whereas TSHr mRNA was detected only in FGOs. Expression of HMGA2 mRNA and protein was significantly increased in FGOs from 6 to 24 h after fenofibrate, confirming its role in the early phase of adipocyte differentiation. Treatment with fenofibrate for 24 h significantly increased the expression of leptin and TSHr genes. Moreover, TSH treatment significantly increased the accumulation of cAMP, demonstrating that FGOs express functional TSHr. The high level of expression of PPARalpha other than PPARgamma2 transcripts and the stimulating effect of fenofibrate on adipogenesis and on HMGA2, leptin and TSHr genes also indicate that the PPARalpha pathway plays an important part in the adipocyte differentiation of FGOs. These findings suggest that novel drugs to antagonize PPARalpha, other than the PPARgamma signalling system, may also need to be considered in the treatment or prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy.
tricor generic name
Weight loss and hypolipidemic drugs can improve lipid and adipokine levels. We assessed the effects of rimonabant, alone and in combination with fenofibrate or ezetimibe, on adipokine levels in obese/overweight patients with dyslipidemia. Overweight/obese patients (n = 60, body mass index = 27-40 kg/m(2)) with mixed dyslipidemia were recruited. Patients received a hypocaloric diet and were randomized to rimonabant 20 mg/d (group R, n = 20), rimonabant 20 mg/d plus fenofibrate 200 mg/d (group RF, n = 20), or rimonabant 20 mg/d plus ezetimibe 10 mg/d (group RE, n = 20). After 3 months, leptin concentration was significantly reduced in all groups (-38%, P < .005; -40%, P < .005; and -44%, P < .001 in the R, RF, and RE groups, respectively). Total adiponectin remained unaltered. Visfatin concentration decreased significantly only in the RE and RF groups (-18% and -38%, respectively; P < .047). Treatment with rimonabant may improve adipokine levels in overweight/obese patients with dyslipidemia. The addition of fenofibrate or ezetimibe may reinforce this effect.
Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is present at high levels in the absorptive cells of the intestine (enterocytes) where it plays a role in the intracellular solubilization of fatty acids (FA). However, I-FABP has also been shown to bind to a range of non-FA ligands, including some lipophilic drug molecules, albeit with generally lower affinity than FA. The significance of these lower affinity interactions with exogenous compounds is not known. In this manuscript, we describe further characterization of drug-rat I-FABP binding interactions using a thermal-shift assay. A structural explanation of the observed affinity of rat I-FABP for different drugs based on spectroscopic data and modeling experiments is presented. In addition, immunocytochemistry has been used to probe the expression of I-FABP in a cell culture model reflective of the absorptive cells of the small intestine. Taken together, these data suggest a possible role for I-FABP in the disposition of some lipophilic drugs within the enterocyte.
tricor generic medication
Atorvastatin decreased all LDL-subfractions to a similar extent (quantitative effect) whereas fenofibrate reduced predominantly dLDL and changed the LDL profile towards medium dense LDL-particles (qualitative effect). Since medium dense LDL have a higher affinity to the LDL-receptor fenofibrate may have a higher antiatherogenic potential than assessed by the reduction of total LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides alone.
tricor generic equivalent
The recent ACCORD and DIAD studies revealed results which could modify treatments and the screening of diabetes vascular complications. Indeed, ACCORD shows no benefit on the prevention of diabetes vascular complications by aggressive treatment of hypertension or the combined treatment of the dyslipidemia. The intensive treatment of the blood glucose, if associated with severe hypoglycemias, increases mortality. DIAD revealed 20% of silent myocardial ischaemia in diabetic patients but no beneficial effect on the cardiovascular mortality. A careful reading of these studies in the light of long term studies such as UKPDS and STENO reveals that these negative results are generated by a too short follow-up and too aggressive objectives. The long term studies reveal that more realistic objectives remain beneficial.
Multivariate regression analysis of time to crystal-proven recurrence of gout showed that serum urate levels during urate-lowering treatment and after its withdrawal were independently related to gout recurrence. None of the patients who had average serum urate levels of <7 mg/dl after urate-lowering therapy withdrawal developed a crystal-proven recurrence of gout. Post hoc analysis showed that weight loss and use of drugs that lower serum urate, such as losartan or fenofibrate, were associated with serum urate levels of <7 mg/dl during followup after urate-lowering therapy withdrawal; use of diuretics was associated with failure to achieve serum urate levels of <7 mg/dl during followup.
tricor order forms
Combined antihypertensive and lipid lowering therapy leads to pronounced lowering of high coronary risk in metabolic syndrome.
tricor generic fenofibrate
Hepatic steatosis is often associated with insulin resistance as a hallmark of the metabolic syndrome in the liver. The present study investigated the effects of PPARα activation induced by fenofibrate (FB) on the relationship of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet, which increases lipid influx into the liver. Mice were fed HF diet to induce insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis with or without FB. FB activated PPARα and ameliorated HF diet-induced glucose intolerance and hepatic insulin resistance without altering either hepatic steatosis or inflammation signaling (JNK or IKK). Interestingly, FB treatment simultaneously increased fatty acid (FA) synthesis (50%) and oxidation (66%, both p<0.01) into intermediate lipid metabolites, suggesting a FA oxidation-synthesis cycling in operation. Associated with these effects, diacylglycerols (DAGs) were sequestered within the lipid droplet/ER compartment, thus reducing their deposition in the cellular membrane, which is known to impair insulin signal transduction. These findings suggest that the reduction in membrane DAGs (rather than total hepatic steatosis) may be critical for the protection by fenofibrate-induced PPARα activation against hepatic insulin resistance induced by dietary fat.
This case report describes a false-positive amphetamine/ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] and ecstasy (MDMA) screen after therapeutic use of antihyperlipidemic drug, fenofibrate. A 60-year-old male patient was admitted to inpatient psychiatry unit with the diagnosis of alcohol dependency. He was prescribed diazepam 30 mg/day, thiamine 300 mg/day, and naltrexone 50 mg/day. He had also been using fenofibrate 267 mg/day for 3 years for hyperlipidemia and trazodone 100 mg/day for 5 months for insomnia. On routine, urine drugs-of-abuse screening amphetamine/MDMA (CEDIA) test was positive for 4 different occasions and MDMA (DRI) test was positive on 5 different occasions. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry confirmation of the first positive 3 samples were negative for amphetamine and MDMA. After discontinuation of fenofibrate, amphetamine/MDMA, and MDMA immunoassay results turned out to be negative. Caution should be given to interpretation of amphetamine/MDMA (CEDIA) and MDMA (DRI) tests in patients taking fenofibrate. Specific confirmation with a suitable method should be used to prevent erroneous interpretations.
tricor generic name
Fibrates, activators of the nuclear receptor PPARalpha, improve dyslipidemia, but their effects on insulin resistance and vascular disease are unresolved. To test the hypothesis that PPARalpha activation improves insulin resistance and vascular function, we determined the effects of fenofibrate in healthy adults with insulin resistance induced by short-term glucocorticoid administration. Eighteen normal-weight subjects were studied in four stages: at baseline, after 21 days of fenofibrate (160 mg/day) alone, after 3 days of dexamethasone (8 mg/day) added to fenofibrate, and after 3 days of dexamethasone added to placebo (dexamethasone alone). Dexamethasone alone caused hyperinsulinemia, increased glucose, decreased glucose disposal, and reduced insulin-induced suppression of hepatic glucose production as determined by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and increased systolic blood pressure as determined by ambulatory monitoring, features associated with an insulin-resistant state. Fenofibrate improved fasting LDL and total cholesterol in the setting of dexamethasone treatment but had no significant effect on levels of insulin or glucose, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, or insulin suppression of glucose production during clamps, or ambulatory monitored blood pressure. In the absence of dexamethasone, fenofibrate lowered fasting triglycerides and cholesterol but unexpectedly increased systolic blood pressure by ambulatory monitoring. These data suggest that PPARalpha activation in humans does not correct insulin resistance induced by glucocorticoids and may adversely affect blood pressure.