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Triphala (TP) is composed of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. The present study was undertaken to evaluate its anticataract potential in vitro and in vivo in a selenite-induced experimental model of cataract. In vitro enucleated rat lenses were maintained in organ culture containing Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium alone or with the addition of 100μM selenite. These served as the normal and control groups, respectively. In the test group, the medium was supplemented with selenite and different concentrations of TP aqueous extract. The lenses were incubated for 24 h at 37°C. After incubation, the lenses were processed to estimate reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation product, and antioxidant enzymes. In vivo selenite cataract was induced in 9-day-old rat pups by subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (25 μmole/kg body weight). The test groups received 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg of TP intraperitoneally 4 h before the selenite challenge. At the end of the study period, the rats' eyes were examined by slit-lamp. TP significantly (P < 0.01) restored GSH and decreased malondialdehyde levels. A significant restoration in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05), catalase (P < 0.05), glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05), and glutathione-s-transferase (P < 0.005) was observed in the TP-supplemented group compared to controls. In vivo TF 25mg/kg developed only 20% nuclear cataract as compared to 100% in control. TP prevents or retards experimental selenite-induced cataract. This effect may be due to antioxidant activity. Further studies are warranted to explore its role in human cataract.
triphala reviews 2013
The aetiology of gastric ulcers is not completely understood and continuous use of anti-ulcer agents leads to many side effects. In this study we evaluated the anti-ulcer efficacy of a polyherbal formulation with potent antioxidant activity in aspirin and pyloric ligature induced gastric ulcers in rats.
After using mouthwash for 15 days, an 83% and 80% reduction and at 45 days a 67% and 65% reduction in salivary MS colony count was observed in the triphala and chlorhexidine groups, respectively (P = 0.0001). The control group showed an increase of 3% in MS colony count at 15 days and a reduction of 7% at 45 days. (P = 0.116).
triphala reviews 2012
Paracetamol, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, is known to cause liver and renal injury in humans when administered in higher and repeated doses that cause acute liver injury. Triphala is a well-known Ayurvedic Rasayana formulation that is prescribed for balancing of Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Traditionally, it is used for the treatment of liver and kidney diseases.
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The treated group has shown significantly improved wound closure. Assessment of granulation tissue on every fourth day showed significant reduction in bacterial count with significant level of collagen, hexosamine, uronic acid, and superoxide dismutase in the treated group (P < 0.01). Reduction of matrix metalloproteinase expression observed in the treated group by gelatin zymography and immunoblotting confirms our in vivo assessment.
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Swiss albino mice (weight 20-25 g) were used in this study. The mice were divided into five groups of six animals each. The aqueous extract of Triphala was given orally at two different doses (100 and 300 mg/kg body weight) for seven consecutive days, followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of paracetamol (500 mg/kg body weight) to induce hepato-renal toxicity. Serum levels of liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatinine, urea and uric acid were measured as indices of liver and renal injury. All the statistical analyses were performed with the help of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test as post hoc test. Results were considered statistically significant when P < 0.05.
Exposure of Capan-2 cells to the aqueous extract of Triphala for 24 h resulted in the significant decrease in the survival of cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of about 50 microg/ml. Triphala-mediated reduced cell survival correlated with induction of apoptosis, which was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Triphala-induced apoptosis was linked with phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-15 and ERK at Thr-202/Tyr-204 in Capan-2 cells. Above mentioned effects were significantly blocked when the cells were pretreated with an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), suggesting the involvement of ROS generation. Pretreatment of cells with pifithrin-alpha or U0126, specific inhibitors of p53 or MEK-1/2, significantly attenuated Triphala-induced apoptosis. Moreover, NAC or U0126 pretreatment significantly attenuated Triphala-induced p53 transcriptional activity. Similarly, Triphala induced apoptosis in another pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 by activating ERK. On the other hand, Triphala failed to induce apoptosis or activate ERK or p53 in normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE-6) cells. Further, oral administration of 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg Triphala in PBS, 5 days/week significantly suppressed the growth of Capan-2 pancreatic tumor-xenograft. Reduced tumor-growth in Triphala fed mice was due to increased apoptosis in the tumors cells, which was associated with increased activation of p53 and ERK.
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Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) of the retinal pigment epithelium is involved in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) that often leads to retinal detachment. In this study, Triphala, an ayurvedic formulation and two of its active ingredients, namely chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid were evaluated for anti-EMT properties based on in vitro experiments in human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) under TGFβ1 induced conditions. ARPE-19 cells were treated with TGFβ1 alone or co-treated with various concentrations of aqueous extract (AqE) (30-300 μg/ml); alcoholic extract (AlE) (50-500 μg/ml) of triphala and the active principles chebulagic acid (CA) and chebulinic acid (CI) (CA,CI: 50-200 μM). The expression of EMT markers namely MMP-2, αSMA, vimentin and the tight junction protein ZO-1 were evaluated by qPCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. The functional implications of EMT, namely migration and proliferation of cells were assessed by proliferation assay, scratch assay and transwell migration assay. AqE, AlE, CA and CI reduced the expression and activity of MMP-2 at an ED50 value of 100 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 100 μM and 100 μM, respectively. At these concentrations, a significant down-regulation of the expression of αSMA, vimentin and up-regulation of the expression of ZO-1 altered by TGFβ1 were observed. These concentrations also inhibited proliferation and migration of ARPE-19 cells induced by TGFβ1. EMT was found to be induced in ARPE-19 cells, through SMAD-3 phosphorylation and it was inhibited by AqE, AlE, CA and CI. Further studies in experimental animals are required to attribute therapeutic potential of these extracts and their active compounds, as an adjuvant therapy in the disease management of PVR.
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Combination of herbomineral drugs along with pathya has shown promising results toward the effective management of this metabolic disorder.