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DNA was prepared following ultracentrifugation of saliva and plasma. EBV and HHV-6B DNAs were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
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Patients were treated with oral antiviral therapy. Medications included valacyclovir (1 g 3 times daily), oral famciclovir (500 mg 3 times daily), and topical and oral corticosteroids.
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In study 1, the time to first recurrence was similar in famciclovir and valacyclovir recipients, hazard ratio (HR) 1.17 (95% CI, 0.78-1.76), but time to first virologically confirmed recurrence was shorter among famciclovir recipients, HR = 2.15 (95% CI, 1.00-4.60). In study 2, HSV was detected on 3.2% of days among famciclovir recipients and 1.3% of days among valacyclovir recipients, relative risk 2.33 (95% CI, 1.18-4.89).
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Valacyclovir did not decrease systemic immune activation or inflammatory biomarkers in HIV-1/HSV-2-coinfected adults on suppressive ART.
Controlled trials suggest that acyclovir/valacyclovir can provide significant clinical benefits when used for prophylaxis in the immunocompromised host. These findings implicate herpesvirus(es) in the pathogenesis of complex medical conditions, including graft rejection and death. However, it is not known which of the 8 herpesviruses are important under particular circumstances. Prime candidates for triggering adverse outcomes are cytomegalovirus (CMV) in solid organ transplant recipients (causing rejection), CMV and human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6) in bone marrow transplant patients (causing marrow suppression), and herpes simplex virus, HHV-6, and CMV in AIDS patients (accelerating the rate of human immunodeficiency virus disease progression and death). Other diseases that may have a herpesvirus component or trigger susceptible antiviral agents include atherosclerosis and multiple sclerosis. In the future, clinicians should be alert to novel findings of randomized trials that may provide insight into the pathogenesis of these diseases and the contributions made by clinically silent herpesvirus infections.
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We hypothesized that subset classification of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is required. At first, a blinded-random placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir in EBV CFS subset was performed (Group 1), and this EBV subset was followed for thirty-six months (Group 2). Patients were given valacyclovir at 14.3 mg/kg every 6 hours. The validated Energy Index (EI) point score assessing physical functional capacity, Holter monitor, multigated (radionuclide) MUGA rest/stress ventriculographic examination, EBV serum IgM viral capsid antibodies (VCA), and EBV early antigen diffuse (EA) were followed. After six-months, Group 1 CFS patients receiving valacyclovir experienced an increased mean least square EI point score +1.12 units (122 kcal/day), while the placebo cohort increased +0.42 EI units (65 kcal/day). EI point scores at Group 2 increased progressively. Sinus tachycardias decreased and abnormal cardiac wall motion improved. Serum antibody titers to EBV VCA IgM decreased. Patients resumed normal activities.
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Both cases had renal transplants from live donors. The first one was an 18-year-old man. Laboratory investigations revealed his leukocyte count as 1.7 x 10(9)/L. The patient was using mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, and valganciclovir. Mycophenolate mofetil was stopped because he had neutropenia, and later, valganciclovir was also stopped because the neutropenia persisted. Because the neutropenia did not recover after we discontinued valganciclovir, the patient was administered granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. The neutrophil count increased to 2.2 x 10(9)/L (leucocyte count to 6.5 x 10(9)/L) after 24 hours. The second case was a 37-year-old man and was using mycophenolic acid, tacrolimus, and valacyclovir. Laboratory investigations revealed his leukocyte count to be 1.3 x 10(9)/L. Mycophenolic acid and valganciclovir were stopped owing to neutropenia. The patient was administered granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and the neutrophil count increased to 3.8 x 10(9)/L (leucocyte count to 5.8 x 10(9)/L). The kidney functions did not deteriorate in either patient, and the patients' kidney functions were similar to baseline levels 12 months after surgery.
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Sub-optimal therapy of immunocompetent mice with either VCV or FCV did not readily select for HSV-mutants resistant to either ACV or PCV, suggesting that selection of resistance with either prodrug remains difficult using this system. Futhermore, this study suggests that the PEA may represent a useful adjunct to the PRA for monitoring alterations in the proportion of drug-resistant virus even when no change in IC50 is apparent.
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The efficacy of early versus late treatment with acyclovir and valaciclovir on zoster-associated pain was assessed from two databases (1076 patients) that were compiled from randomized trials. Early treatment was started < 48 h and late treatment was started 48-72 h after the onset of cutaneous herpes zoster. Median times to complete resolution of zoster-associated pain were 28 and 62 days, respectively, for patients (> or = 18 years of age) treated with acyclovir and placebo within 48 h (hazard ratio [HR], 1.68; 95% confidence limit [95% CL], 1.19, 2.38) and 28 and 58 days, respectively, for those treated later (HR, 2.20; 95% CL, 1.03, 4.71). In the valaciclovir versus acyclovir study (in patients > or = 50 years of age), the corresponding figures were 44 and 51 days for patients treated early (HR, 1.28; 95% CL, 1.03, 1.60) and 36 and 48 days for those treated later (HR, 1.40; 95% CL, 1.04, 1.87). Acyclovir significantly shortened the time to complete resolution of zoster-associated pain compared with placebo (and valaciclovir was superior to acyclovir in this regard) even when therapy was delayed up to 72 h after rash onset.
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A homogeneous, single-tube scintillation proximity radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) to quantitate acyclovir (Zovirax), ACV, (9-[(2[hydroxyethoxy)]methylguanine)] in human plasma is described. The reagents for the SPRIA are an anti-ACV monoclonal antibody (WACO4 MAb), tritiated ACV, and scintillation proximity reagent (goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) coupled to fluoromicrospheres). The ACV standard curve range in the SPRIA is from 0.7 ng ml-1 (3.0 nmol l-1) to 90.0 ng ml-1 (0.4 mumol l-1) with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 5.0 ng ml-1 (22.2 nmol l-1). However, the lower limit of quantification is 7 ng ml-1 at 1:10 dilution of plasma. Analytical recovery of ACV in spiked human plasma controls ranges between 90-110%. Intra- and inter-assay relative standard deviations were < 8%. This high throughput homogeneous assay is a rapid, convenient and simple alternative to the current radioimmunoassay that uses ammonium sulfate precipitation as the separation method. This technique is particularly attractive because it requires neither separation of bound from free drug nor use of scintillation fluid. The procedure was applied to quantitate ACV in samples from pre-clinical and clinical studies after the administration of valaciclovir, a prodrug of ACV (256U87, Valtrex, L-valyl ester of ACV). Automation of this assay will further improve efficiency in processing a larger number of samples.
A total of 12 randomized controlled trials with 7,277 patients were included in the review. Trials compared one antiviral to another (aciclovir, valaciclovir, famciclovir or brivudin) for a minimum of 7 days in immunocompetent patients presenting with herpes zoster diagnosed within 72 h of symptom onset. Primary outcome was reduction in pain.
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Supplemental valacyclovir may alleviate impairments in cognitive domains that are often observed in schizophrenia but not psychotic symptoms in those exposed to HSV1. If replicated, this approach could provide a novel strategy to treat cognitive impairments in a subgroup of schizophrenia subjects who can be reliably identified using a blood test.