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The overall clinical cure rate at the 30-day visit with the intent-to-treat approach in which patients lost to follow-up were considered as having clinical cure was 93% (139/150) for ciprofloxacin compared with 82% (123/150) for cefpodoxime (difference of 11%; 95% CI, 3%-18%); and for the intent-to-treat approach in which patients lost to follow-up were considered as having not responded to treatment, the clinical cure rate was 83% (124/150) for ciprofloxacin compared with 71% (106/150) for cefpodoxime (difference of 12%; 95% CI, 3%-21%). The microbiological cure rate was 96% (123/128) for ciprofloxacin compared with 81% (104/129) for cefpodoxime (difference of 15%; 95% CI, 8%-23%). At first follow-up, 16% of women in the ciprofloxacin group compared with 40% of women in the cefpodoxime group had vaginal E coli colonization.
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Fine particles of cefpodoxime proxetil (CPD) were prepared using an Aerosol Solvent Extraction System (ASES) with supercritical CO(2). The resulting primary particles were approximately 0.1-0.2microm in size and were almost spherical in shape. The secondary particles were approximately 0.2-0.6microm in size and had irregular shapes. The larger particle size and irregular shapes were due to the agglomeration of the primary particles. The effects of solvent type, CO(2)-to-CPD solution weight ratio, and CPD solution concentration on the extent of agglomeration were investigated. As a result, the use of ethyl acetate and acetone as solvents also reduced the degree of agglomeration. The degree of agglomeration was reduced with the use of a high CO(2)-to-solution weight ratio, and a low solution concentration. In particular, spherical particles, approximately 0.1-0.4microm in size, were obtained when a 10.0wt% CPD solution was used. As a result of dissolution study, almost 90% of the processed CPD had dissolved within 10min. The recovery yield of the CPD powder reached approximately 80% using a membrane filter.
The blood levels of cefpodoxime of 16 hemodialysis patients were monitored after a single oral of Cefpodoxime proxetil with a Cefpodixime-equivalent of 200 mg dose. Eight patients were on dialysis during the period of observation, while the other eight patients were observed during a non-dialysis period. During hemodialysis the cefpodoxime levels were determined before and after the capillary dialyzer. It became apparent that hemodialysis patients have considerably higher and longer-lasting concentrations than patients with normal kidney function. The area under the curve is about seven times greater. Cefpodoxime is thus apparently eliminated to a great extent renally. The concentration levels before capillary dialyzer are noticeably higher than those after capillary dialyzer, so that it can be assumed that cefpodoxime is being dialyzed: the area under the curve of the eight patients observed during hemodialysis was about 50% less than that of the patients observed while not on hemodialysis. Based on the pharmacokinetic data gathered, simulations of the course of concentration were made which took into consideration the clinical circumstances (normal period of dosage administration and dialysis). According to these simulations one can recommend a loading dose of 200 mg and thereafter a dose of 100 mg 12 h later followed by 100 mg every 24 h. This will result in an average concentration of 2 mg/l and never falling below 1.5 mg/l. With this schedule all bacteria considered to be sensitive can be reached. Cefpodoxime proxetil thereby ensures a simple and effective therapy of bacterial infections in hemodialysis patients.
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CS-834 is a prodrug of the carbapenem R-95867, developed by Sankyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. To investigate the possibility that CS-834 may be the first carbapenem usable in an oral dosage form, its in vitro antibacterial activity (as R-95867) and in vivo antibacterial activity were compared with those of cefpodoxime proxetil, cefditoren pivoxil, cefdinir, ofloxacin, imipenem, and amoxicillin. R-95867 had high levels of activity against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and streptococci, including penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Moraxella catarrhalis, the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (with the exception of Serratia marcescens), Haemophilus influenzae, and Bordetella pertussis; for all these strains, the MICs at which 90% of tested strains are inhibited (MIC90s) were 1.0 microg/ml or less. Against methicillin-resistant staphylococci, enterococci, Serratia marcescens, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, R-95867 showed activity comparable to or slightly less than that of imipenem, with MIC90s ranging from 2 to >128 microg/ml. The in vivo efficacy of oral CS-834 against experimental mouse septicemia caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was better than that of comparative drugs. In murine respiratory infection models, the efficacy of CS-834 reflected not only its potent in vitro activity but also the high levels present in the lungs.
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Cefpodoxime proxetil (CFP), an oral third-generation cephalosporin, is a prodrug that is de-esterified in vivo to its active metabolite, cefpodoxime acid (CFA). Therefore, this study aimed to develop a facile and efficient one-pot reaction for selective and sensitive determination of CFA and its prodrug (CFP). The method was based on single-step reaction between CFP or CFA and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS) as a selective derivatizing reagent in alkaline medium without heating, extraction or reduction steps as usual for NQS derivatization reactions. The fluorescence of the formed NQS-derivative was monitored directly at emission wavelength of 440 nm after excitation at 330 nm. The method can easily be implemented in plating facilities by operators and/or incorporated in on-line derivatization reaction. The correlation coefficients of 0.9991 and 0.9984 were obtained in the concentration ranges of 50-2000 ng mL(-1) for CFA and CFP, respectively. The detection limits were 9.17 and 9.48 ng mL(-1) for CFA and CFP, respectively. The method was validated in accordance with the requirements of ICH guidelines and shown to be suitable for their efficient and sensitive determinations. The developed method was successfully applied for selective determination of CFP in pure form and in pharmaceutical dosage forms as well as CFA in human urine after single dose of CFP without prior need for separation. The method is valuable for quality control laboratories for monitoring of CFP and its active metabolite CFA.
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Cefpodoxime is an oral third-generation cephalosporin used for the treatment of acute upper-respiratory tract infections caused by susceptible bacteria in children. Although not indicated for the treatment of bacterial meningitis, it is used to treat other infections produced by organisms associated with meningitis and may obscure the result of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures in children who develop meningitis while receiving oral antibiotics if sufficient concentrations are achieved in the CSF. This study evaluated the disposition of cefpodoxime and penetration into CSF in piglets. Fifteen Landacre-Camborough cross piglets (10-20 days old) received cefpodoxime proxetil oral suspension (10 mg/kg). Repeated plasma and CSF samples were collected over 24 hours for quantitation of cefpodoxime by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on both plasma and CSF data. The plasma concentration versus time data for cefpodoxime were best characterized using a one-compartment model with first-order absorption. The mean (+/- SD) pharmacokinetic parameters for Cmax, tmax, and AUC0-infinity were 23.3 +/- 12.9 mg/L, 3.9 +/- 1.4 h, and 237 +/- 129 mg/L.h, respectively. CSF/plasma ratios for AUC0-infinity demonstrated a mean cefpodoxime penetration of approximately 5%. CSF penetration of cefpodoxime was evident following a single oral dose of cefpodoxime proxetil suspension. Despite the small percentage of total cefpodoxime dose distributing into the CSF, the resultant concentrations approached or exceeded the MIC90 for many bacterial pathogens considered susceptible to cefpodoxime. Accordingly, clinicians should use caution in the interpretation of CSF cultures in patients who develop clinical signs and symptoms consistent with meningitis and who have been previously treated with cefpodoxime.
All patients had acute-onset otorrhea associated with their AOM. Five patients had tympanostomy tubes and 1 had perforation of the tympanic membrane. None of the patients were responding to treatment with oral antibiotics (amoxicillin sodium-clavulanate potassium, cefpodoxime proxetil, and cefprozil) or fluoroquinolone ear drops (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin). Specimens were obtained from the ears for cultures, and MRSA was present in the cultures. The organisms were resistant to levofloxacin and erythromycin in all patients and resistant to clindamycin hydrochloride in 2 patients. The cultures were sensitive to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin sulfate, rifampin, and vancomycin hydrochloride. All patients were treated successfully with oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ear drops (gentamicin sulfate or polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone [Cortisporin]).
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Acute lower respiratory tract infections in children are a worldwide public health problem, with an estimated 4 million potentially preventable deaths every year. Until recently, penicillin and related drugs were the treatment of choice for empiric therapy of paediatric lower respiratory tract infections. However, concerns over the emergence of penicillin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis have led physicians to turn increasingly towards alternatives, such as the third generation cephalosporins. The oral extended spectrum cephalosporin cefpodoxime proxetil is highly active against the bacterial pathogens commonly associated with childhood lower respiratory tract infections. In order to evaluate its clinical efficacy in children with acute febrile lower respiratory tract infections, an international, multicenter, comparative, randomized open study was conducted in children ages 3 months to 11.5 years. Of 348 cases enrolled, 234 were randomized to cefpodoxime proxetil (8 mg/kg/day twice daily) and 114 to amoxicilin/clavanulate (amoxicillin 40 mg/kg/day 3 times a day). The duration of treatment was 10 days. Pretreatment diagnosis was pneumonia in 292 patients, bronchiolitis in 19 patients and acute bronchitis in 37 patients. Pathogens isolated from 59 cases included H. influenzae (47.5%), S. pneumoniae (23.7%), M. catarrhalis (11.9%) and Haemophilus parainfluenzae (6.8%). Clinical efficacy was evaluable in 278 children at the end of treatment when 95.2% of patients in the cefpodoxime proxetil group and 96.7% of patients in the amoxicillin/clavanulate group showed a satisfactory clinical response (cured or improved). The improvement was sustained at the follow-up visit, 10 to 20 days after completion of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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An effective procedure for decontamination of beta-lactam antibiotic residues or contaminants in the pharmaceutical manufacturing environment was investigated. Decontamination with solutions of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxylamine as agents for degradation was assessed. According to the results, the beta-lactam antibiotics were significantly degraded with sodium hydroxide and hydroxylamine. From the structural analysis of the degradation products of a cephem antibiotic, cefpodoxime proxetil, it was found that hydroxylamine degraded the beta-lactam structure under mild conditions, while sodium hydroxide did not. Therefore, hydroxylamine was considered an appropriate decontamination agent for beta-lactam antibiotics.
Inferences drawn from in vitro studies suggest that microballoons may be potential delivery system for cefpodoxime proxetil with improvement in bioavailability in comparison to conventional dosage forms.
Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) is the most common bacterial cause of acute pharyngitis. Although children infected with GABHS will recover clinically without antibiotics, treatment is recommended in order to prevent acute rheumatic fever and probably suppurative complications, hasten resolution of clinical signs and symptoms, and prevent transmission to close contacts. Streptococcal pharyngitis usually cannot be reliably distinguished from other etiologies on the basis of epidemiologic or physical findings, and therefore a throat culture or a rapid antigen detection test is generally necessary to confirm the diagnosis. All isolates of GABHS are sensitive to penicillins and cephalosporins, whereas resistance to macrolides has been identified in some geographic regions. The recommended first-line therapy for streptococcal pharyngitis is a 10-day course of penicillin V, usually given 2 or 3 times per day. A number of alternatives to penicillin V are available, including other penicillins, macrolides, and cephalosporins. As a class, the cephalosporins are noteworthy because they may provide somewhat higher bacteriologic eradication rates than penicillin V. Many cephalosporins can be administered twice daily, but they also must be given for 10 days. Two third-generation cephalosporins, cefdinir and cefpodoxime proxetil, are approved for use in a more convenient 5-day dosing schedule, thus possibly increasing the likelihood of adherence to the full course of therapy. Palatability is also an important consideration when prescribing antibiotics to children. In a series of studies, children preferred the pleasant strawberry-cream taste of cefdinir to that of amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefprozil, and azithromycin. Cefdinir may offer an alternative to penicillin V for children with streptococcal pharyngitis, particularly when compliance is a clinical concern.