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Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff. (Family-Acanthaceae) occupies a key role in traditional system of medicine. Since an extensive literature survey did not provide any information about studies on its standardization. Therefore, we designed the current study to establish the quality control parameters of G. pictum aerial parts.
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Unfractionated heparin (UH) decreases the extent of infarction after transient focal brain ischemia in the rat and abridges neuroinflammatory damage in patients with acute stroke. This study was aimed at assessing whether controlled and steady heparinemia in plasma can reduce infarct volume and exert neuroprotective effects after ischemia. Infarct volume was measured at 24 and 7 days following a 1-hr intraluminal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in rats treated with UH or with vehicle. After testing several UH administration protocols, we choose to give a bolus of 200 U/kg, which was started 3 hr after the occlusion, followed by a 24-hr intraperitoneal perfusion of 70 U/kg/hr, which maintained a 24-hr steady plasma heparinemia (0.3-0.6 U/ml) and caused no CNS or systemic bleeding. In addition, plasma IL-10 concentration was measured by ELISA, endothelial VCAM-1 expression was evaluated by i.v. injection of a (125)I-labeled monoclonal antibody against VCAM-1, and brain hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression was determined by Western blot. UH-treated rats showed smaller infarctions than rats treated with vehicle, as well as higher IL-10 plasma levels and HO-1 brain expression and lower endothelial VCAM-1 induction. The study shows that a stable plasma concentration of UH given at nonhemorrhagic doses reduces infarct volume after ischemia-reperfusion in the rat. It also shows that UH prevented the induction of cell adhesion molecules in the cerebral vasculature and increased the expression of molecules with antiinflammatory and prosurvival properties. These findings support further testing of the clinical value of parenteral, adjusted, high-dose UH in patients with acute stroke.
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This tutorial review highlights the development of radical-based bioinspired synthesis of terpenes from the initial proposal to the development of modern catalytic methods for performing such processes. The power of the radical approach is demonstrated by the straightforward syntheses of many natural products from readily available starting materials. The efficiency of these processes nicely complements the described cationic polyolefin cyclisations and even suggests that modern radical methods provide means to improve upon nature's synthetic pathways.
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The aim of this study is to investigate whether HJC, isolated from Justicia procumbens for the first time, can suppress the proliferation and induce apoptosis of human leukemia K562 cells and finally clarify its related mechanism. The chemical structure of HJC was validated by LC-ESI-MS/MS, cytotoxicity was assayed using MTT, and apoptosis was investigated by flow cytometry. These assays indicated that HJC remarkably inhibited the growth in K562 cells by decreasing cell proliferation, reducing the SOD activity, enhancing ROS levels and inducing apoptosis. Activation of caspase-3 indicated that HJC may be inducing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways and that HJC-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent. This study suggests that HJC is a high-potency anti-tumor agent, and it induces apoptosis through a caspase-dependent pathway in human leukemia K562 cells. It also presents a potential alternative to leukemia therapy.
En el artículo se definen algunos de los términos más relevantes en bioética clínica. Los términos se han escogido con base en tres criterios: repercusión en los problemas más importantes en bioética clínica, dificultad en su comprensión y necesidad de aclarar su significado. Para su mejor comprensión, los términos se han agrupado en 5 áreas temáticas: conceptos generales (conflicto de valores, deliberación, conflicto de intereses, objeción de conciencia); justicia (justicia, justicia distributiva, modelos de justicia, triage); relación clínica (información, competencia, capacidad, consentimiento informado, menor maduro, coacción, intimidad, privacidad, confidencialidad, secreto profesional); final de la vida (instrucciones previas, limitación de los esfuerzos terapéuticos, obstinación profesional, futilidad, cuidados paliativos, sedación paliativa, principio del doble efecto, eutanasia, suicidio asistido, estado vegetativo persistente, estado de mínima conciencia, síndrome de enclaustramiento, muerte encefálica), e inicio de la vida (reproducción asistida, consejo genético, diagnóstico genético preimplantacional).
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During the study period, 4044 deaths due to traffic injuries were recorded. Deaths within 30 days included more women, minors, elderly people, and pedestrians than immediate deaths.
Lignans, which are recognized as main constituents in Justicia procumbens, have attracted considerable attention due to their pharmacological activities, including antitumor, anti-hepatitic, cytotoxic, anti-microbial, and anti-virus properties. Preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of four lignans (justicidin B (1), justicidin A (2), 6'-hydroxyjusticidin C (3) and lignan J1 (4)) from J. procumbens using stepwise elution with a pair of two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1.3:1:1.3:1, v/v) and (2.5:1:2.5:1, v/v). The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 300 mg of crude sample yielding compounds 1 (19.7 mg), 2 (9.86 mg), 3 (11.26 mg), and 4 (2.54 mg) in a one-step separation, with purities over 95% as determined by HPLC. The structures of these compounds were identified by MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. This is the first report on the application of HSCCC to the efficient separation of lignans from J. procumbens.
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The AmpFlSTR Y-filer kit, including 16 Y-STRs was analyzed in 326 males from Chihuahua, at North Central, Mexico. Allele frequencies and gene diversity for each locus were estimated. Four allele duplications, namely DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391 and DYS439; and one allele null at DYS448 were observed in the sample. The haplotype diversity was 99.97+/-0.3%. The AMOVA results, including a previous report from West of Mexico (Jalisco), showed that most of the genetic variability between these Mexican populations is attributable to intrapopulational differences (99.87%). This result supports a low-genetic differentiation between males from North and West regions of Mexico.
To generate normative data on TOMM across 7 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate.
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According with our results, ectopic expression of the bcl-2 gene prevented apoptosis without changes in morphology or phenotype in the absence of GM-CSF and serum or the presence of the extract from Justicia spicigera. Consisting with the Bcl-2 function, we found that Bcl-2 did not change response to GM-CSF. Serum deprivation or GM-CSF withdrawal induces cell death at 36 hours in TF-1 and TF-1neo cells, whereas TB-1 cells undergo apoptotic membrane blebbing after 96 hours under the same conditions.
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Plant species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host plants of Aphis gossypii Glover. The study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and plant life zones of Costa Rica. Plant species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. Differences between locations were observed. A total of 86 plant species (49 families) and 72 plant species (40 families) were identified associated to the crop in farms A and B, respectively. In both farms a total of 24 species plants (16 families) were colonized by A. gossypii and 16 (10 families) are new reports of host plant species for this aphid. The new reports are: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia and Corchorus orinocensis.
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Arylnaphthalene lignans have attracted considerable interest with the discovery of their antineoplastic activities. Two such compounds are justicidin B and 6'-hydroxy justicidin C, both of which have been isolated from the herb Justicia procumbens. We sought to develop and validate a sensitive and accurate, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the structural determination and pharmacokinetics of justicidin B and 6'-hydroxy justicidin C. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent 300SB-C18 column using water (0.5% formic acid, 10 mM NH4 COOH) methanol as the mobile phase. The plasma samples obtained after oral administration of the active extract of Justicia procumbens were successfully analyzed with our novel method, thereby demonstrating its sound applicability and reliability. The lower limit of quantification for justicidin B and 6'-hydroxy justicidin C was 0.50 and 1.00 ng/mL in 50 μL rat plasma, respectively. The elimination half-life and clearance of justicidin B was estimated to be 1.27 ± 0.61 h and 5.40 ± 0.22 L/h/kg while that of 6'-hydroxy justicidin C was 2.07 ± 0.70 h and 11.84 ± 1.06 L/h/kg. This newly developed and validated method was successfully applied to the quantification and pharmacokinetic study of justicidin B and 6'-hydroxy justicidin C in rats.