Male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically implanted with lumbar intrathecal catheters, and the sciatic nerve was loosely ligated. After 21-28 days after surgery, the rats received intrathecal clonidine (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 microg) and tizanidine (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 microg), and the antihyperalgesic effects of thermal and mechanical stimuli were examined. In addition, the changes in blood pressure and heart rate, sedation level, and other side effects after intrathecal administration of drugs were recorded.
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To assess the effectiveness of interventions involving the use of alpha2-adrenergic agonists compared with placebo, reducing doses of methadone, symptomatic medications, or an alpha2-adrenergic agonist regimen different to the experimental intervention, for the management of the acute phase of opioid withdrawal. Outcomes included the withdrawal syndrome experienced, duration of treatment, occurrence of adverse effects, and completion of treatment.
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Continuous intrathecal baclofen was effective in treating severe spasticity and dystonia of cerebral origin with major effect on muscles of the lower extremities, pelvis, and back and in particular opisthotonus was relieved. Efficacy on upper extremities was far less pronounced.
There is insufficient evidence from randomized controlled trials to show significant benefit from non-antiepileptic drugs in trigeminal neuralgia. More research is needed.
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We report the occurrence of sino-atrial and a-v node dysfunction in a case of tizanidine overdose. Possible pathphysiological mechanism of arrhythmias and its clinical significance are presented.
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Spasticity results from various pathophysiologic abnormalities in spinal cord neuronal circuits. Noninvasive electrophysiologic techniques can be used to study these circuits in humans. The best correlation between briskness of reflexes and results of electrophysiologic testing is found with reduction in vibratory inhibition, a test that reflects presynaptic inhibition. For increase in muscle tone, the best correlation is found with reduction of Ib nonreciprocal inhibition. These test results, which are stable under controlled conditions, are influenced by myorelaxant drugs and may be used to analyze the mode of action of new products because the tests study specific circuits involving known neurotransmitters. Tizanidine reinforces presynaptic inhibition and two types of postsynaptic inhibition: Ia reciprocal and Ib nonreciprocal. It also markedly reduces flexor reflexes. These effects are explained by an action exerted on spinal interneurons deprived of their normal monoaminergic descending innervation. The spectrum of activity for tizanidine is thus broad, making it likely that tizanidine corrects more than one pathophysiologic abnormality. Because tizanidine reinforces presynaptic as well as Ib nonreciprocal inhibition, it may reduce both brisk tendon jerks and muscle hypertonia.
We investigated the involvement of the spinal cord melanocortin (MC) system in neuropathic pain. Because we recently demonstrated that MC receptor ligands acutely alter nociception in an animal model of neuropathic pain, in this study we tested whether chronic administration was also effective. We hypothesized that chronic blockade of the spinal MC system might decrease sensory abnormalities associated with this condition. The effects of the MC receptor antagonist SHU9119 (0.5 microg/d) and agonist MTII (0.1 microg/d) were evaluated in rats with a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. Drugs were continuously infused into the cisterna magna. Antinociceptive effects were measured with tests involving temperature (10 degrees C or 47.5 degrees C) or mechanical (von Frey) stimulation. The administration of MTII increased mechanical allodynia, whereas SHU9119 produced a profound cold and mechanical antiallodynia, altering responses to control levels. The antiallodynic effects of SHU9119 were very similar to those produced by the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist tizanidine (50 microg/d). The effects of SHU9119 and MTII are most likely mediated through the MC4 receptor, because this is the only MC-receptor subtype present in the spinal cord. We conclude that the chronic administration of MC4-receptor antagonists might provide a promising tool in the treatment of neuropathic pain.
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Celecoxib was found to be a moderately potent competitive inhibitor of CYP1A2 in vitro with a K(i) (inhibitor constant) of 25.4 microM. However, in vivo, celecoxib did not affect the caffeine test, or the peak concentration, time to peak concentration, area under the concentration-time curve or half-life of tizanidine. The pharmacodynamic variables of tizanidine also remained unchanged.
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At baseline, lower average pain score in the non-ITB group was the only significant difference between the 2 groups. A significant reduction in pain scores, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Spasm Frequency Scale, and requirement for oral spasticity medications was observed within the ITB group at early and late follow-up. Within the non-ITB group, there was a significant increase in MAS scores between baseline and late follow-up. A statistically significant difference favoring the ITB group was observed for change in MAS score (P < .0001), Numerical Rating Scale pain score (P = .04), dose of oral baclofen (P = .002) and tizanidine (P = .003), and number of oral medications for spasticity (P = .002). There was no difference between the 2 groups in the progression of hip flexor weakness or in the proportion of patients who became nonambulatory.
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Profound symptomatic bradycardia from a single dose of tizanidine has not been reported. A review of the patient's medications did not reveal a significant cytochrome P450 drug interaction to result in an adverse effect as previously reported in the literature.