The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistance to various antimicrobial drugs among Haemophilus influenzae isolates in Taiwan. Two hundred and ninety-six clinical isolates of H. influenzae were prospectively obtained from nine teaching hospitals throughout Taiwan, from June 1994 to April 1995. All isolates were examined for the presence of type b encapsulation and beta-lactamase production. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by means of standard broth microdilution procedures. Twenty-three isolates (7.8%) were type b, and the overall rate of beta-lactamase production was 58.1% (172/296). The rates of resistance to antibiotics were 58.1% for ampicillin, 33.8% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 20.6% for chloramphenicol, 27% for tetracycline, 6.7% for azithromycin, 3.4% for cefaclor, and 0.3% for cefuroxime. Cefixime, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin were active against all H. influenzae isolates. Thirty (10.1%) of the 296 isolates were resistant to three drugs (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline), 16 of which (5.4%) were resistant to four drugs (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). There was a marked increase in the rates of ampicillin resistance and beta-lactamase production among H. influenzae isolates compared with a previous survey in Taiwan conducted 9 years ago. In addition, isolates with multiple drug resistance were also identified. Continued efforts are needed to monitor antibiotic resistance patterns of H. influenzae in the region.
During the first trimester, 0.4% and 0.7% of control women had used erythromycin and nonerythromycin macrolides, respectively. Compared to non-use during pregnancy, first-trimester exposure to erythromycin was not associated with an increased risk of CHD (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.6-2.6) or PS (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.3-3.0). The corresponding ORs for nonerythromycin macrolides were 0.7 (95% CI, 0.4-1.3) for CHD and 1.7 (95% CI, 0.6-4.6) for PS. We found no association between third-trimester exposure to erythromycin or nonerythromycin macrolides and the risk of PS. Hypothesis generation analyses did not identify appreciable associations between maternal use of macrolides and other common specific birth defects.
This study investigated granulomatous mastitis patients in Alzahra hospital in 2013. The mean age of these patients was 33.6 ± 8.9, and their age range was 18-56 years old. Among 26 studied patients, 24 persons (92.3%) according to follow-up the patients by physical examination and sonography responded to treatment of corticosteroid and Azithromycin. The remaining (7.7%) underwent surgery. Treatment periods in case of drug use were respectively, 8.5 ± 0.71 months.
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Only 19.7%(59/299) S. pneumoniae was sensitive to oral penicillin. The sensitive rates of S. pneumoniae to second-generation cephalosporins(cefuroxime and cefaclor), amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, and macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin) were 25.6% (77/299), 33.4% (100/299), 63.5% (190/299), and 4.4% (13/299), respectively. About 93.5% (280/299)and 98.0% (293/299)of S. pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin.All of the K. pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to ertapenem and imipenem. The sensitive rates of K. pneumoniae to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefoxitin were about 85.0%, 93.2% (206/221), and 90.3% (200/221)of K. pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin.The mean prevalence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae was 8.1% (18/221). No S. aureus isolates resistant to vancomycin were detected in this study.The sensitive rates of S. aureus to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and rifampin were 83.5% (97/116), 82.8% (96/116), 89.6% (104/116) and 83.5% (97/116), respectively. 37.4% (43/116) and 34.8% (40/116)of S. aureus isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and chloramphenicol.All of the H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. The sensitive rates of H. influenza and M. catarrhalis to ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefaclor, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin were from 80% to 100%.
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Single-dose azithromycin therapy has recently been used in Uruguay for the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infections. As part of an active surveillance study to monitor the emergence of antibiotic resistance in gonococcal isolates, we examined the levels of azithromycin susceptibility in 51 consecutive isolates obtained from males with uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis. Isolates with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin (MICs, 0.25 to 0.5 microg/ml) were common, and these isolates often displayed cross-resistance to hydrophobic antimicrobial agents (erythromycin and Triton X-100). Resistance to erythromycin and Triton X-100 is frequently due to overexpression of the mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump mediated by mutations in the mtrR gene, which encodes a transcriptional repressor that modulates expression of the mtrCDE operon. Accordingly, we questioned whether clinical isolates that express decreased azithromycin susceptibility harbor mtrR mutations. Promoter mutations that would decrease the level of expression of mtrR as well as a missense mutation at codon 45 in the mtrR-coding region that would result in a radical amino acid replacement within the DNA-binding motif of MtrR were found in these strains. When these mutations were transferred into azithromycin-susceptible strain FA19 by transformation, the susceptibility of gonococci to azithromycin was decreased by nearly 10-fold. The mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump system was responsible for this property since insertional inactivation of the mtrC gene resulted in enhanced susceptibility of gonococci to azithromycin. We conclude that the mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump can recognize azithromycin and that the emergence of gonococcal strains with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin can, in part, be explained by mtrR mutations.
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The aim of this work was to prepare azithromycin (AZI) nanosuspensions to increase the solubility and dissolution rate.
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In an analysis of 3328 isolates from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children that were sent to the German National Reference Center for Streptococci between July 1997 and June 2011, we show that the proportion of 19A isolates ranged between 1.7 and 4.2% in the period 1997 to 2006. After the recommendation for pneumococcal conjugate childhood vaccination, which was issued in July 2006, the proportion of 19A isolates increased significantly to 15.0% in 2010/11. Eight clonal complexes (CC) and groups accounted for 77.2% and 65.3% of all serotype 19A isolates before and after vaccination, respectively. While three CCs and several STs were not detected after vaccine introduction, four CCs and several STs first appeared after vaccination, including three ST320 isolates that could be traced to recent imports from the US, UK and India. The proportion of penicillin-nonsusceptible and of multidrug-resistant 19A isolates moderately increased after vaccine introduction. A significant increase in the use of cephalosporins and azithromycin was noted post-vaccination (p=0.00001 and p=0.0013 respectively).
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In mucus, all measurable azithromycin concentrations were above the minimal inhibitory concentration against Chlamydia trachomatis on day 7 as well as on day 14.
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Consecutive individuals referred for treatment of MAC lung disease were treated with a regimen that included either clarithromycin, 500 mg bid, or azithromycin, 250 mg/d, on weekdays; ethambutol, 15 mg/kg/d; and clofazimine, 100 mg/d. The intention was to treat patients for a minimum of 12 months. The diagnosis of MAC lung disease was confirmed by multiple positive sputum culture findings in patients with typical symptoms and radiologic findings.
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Acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology was evaluated in children after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Costa Rica (private sector, 2004; National Immunization Program, 2009). This was a combined prospective and retrospective study conducted in a routine clinical setting in San José, Costa Rica. In the prospective part of the study, which was conducted post-PCV7 introduction (2010-2012), standard bacteriological procedures were used to evaluate the etiology and serotype distribution of middle ear fluid samples collected by tympanocentesis or otorrhea from children aged 3-59 months diagnosed with AOM. E-tests were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in culture-positive samples. Retrospective data recorded between 1999 and 2004 were used for comparison of bacterial etiology and serotype distribution before and after PCV7 introduction. Statistical significance was evaluated in bivariate analyses at the P-value < 0.05 level (without multiplicity correction). Post-PCV7 introduction, Haemophilus influenzae was detected in 118/456 and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 87/456 AOM episodes. Most H. influenzae isolates (113/118) were non-typeable. H. influenzae was more (27.4% vs 20.8%) and S. pneumoniae less (17.1% vs 25.5%) frequently observed in vaccinated (≥ 2 PCV7 doses or ≥ 1 PCV7 dose at >1 year of age) versus unvaccinated children. S. pneumoniae non-susceptibility rates were 1.1%, 34.5%, 31.7%, and 50.6% for penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), respectively. H. influenzae non-susceptibility rate was 66.9% for TMP-SMX. Between pre- and post-PCV7 introduction, H. influenzae became more (20.5% vs 25.9%; P-value < 0.001) and S. pneumoniae less (27.7% vs 19.1%; P-value = 0.002) prevalent, and PCV7 serotype proportions decreased among pneumococcal isolates (65.8% vs 43.7%; P-value = 0.0005). Frequently identified pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (34.2%), 3 (9.7%), 6B (9.7%), and 14 (9.7%) pre-PCV7 introduction, and 19F (27.6%), 14 (8.0%), and 35B (8.0%) post-PCV7 introduction. Following PCV7 introduction, a change in the distribution of AOM episodes caused by H. influenzae and pneumococcal serotypes included in PCV7 was observed in Costa Rican children. Pneumococcal vaccines impact should be further evaluated following broader vaccination coverage.