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A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, factorial trial was performed in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing combined bone marrow aspirations and lumbar punctures during maintenance therapy. The study was designed to measure the effect of adding ondansetron and fentanyl to a standard combination of midazolam and propofol.
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Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), a Basidiomycotina extract, is a well-tolerated nutritional supplement with no reported adverse effects. It has demonstrated potential antitumor activity and immune modulator activity. However, there is no current information regarding its metabolism and the potential for drug-drug interactions for AHCC in combination with chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to characterize AHCC hepatic metabolism, specifically involving the potential for drug interactions with selected chemotherapy agents. High-throughput cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) metabolism inhibition experiments were conducted in vitro evaluating CYP450 3A4, 2C8, 2C9, and 2D6 followed by an evaluation of AHCC as a substrate of these same isoenzymes. An ex vivo model of cryopreserved human hepatocytes was used to evaluate the CYP450 metabolism induction potential of AHCC for CYP450 3A4, 2C8/2C9, and 2D6. No inhibition of CYP450 activity was observed in presence of AHCC; however, AHCC was a substrate of CYP450 2D6. The CYP450 induction metabolism assays indicate that AHCC is an inducer of CYP450 2D6. AHCC does have the potential for drug-drug interactions involving CYP450 2D6, such as doxorubicin or ondansetron; however, the overall data suggest that AHCC would be safe to administer with most other chemotherapy agents that are not metabolized via the CYP450 2D6 pathway.
According to the findings, there was no statistical difference between the groups. However, the dosage used in the control group was effective and less expensive.
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In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, 210 parturients who underwent elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to two groups. The intervention group received 0.15 mg/kg ondansetron, while the control group received 5 ml normal saline. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded during surgery. Furthermore, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and PDPH in the two groups were noted by an anesthetic nurse for 3 days and compared.
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The mucoadhesive ondansetron buccal film may be a potential alternative to the marketed oral formulation, parenterals and solid suppositories with better patient compliance and higher bioavailability for the treatment of emesis.
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Although prophylactic blockade of nozizeptive afferents by retrobulbar anesthesia decreased ocular pain and postoperative complaints, it failed to decrease the incidence of PONV. Thus, PONV after ocular surgery under propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia is not attenuated by preoperative blockade of noziceptive afferents. In patients undergoing total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol-remifentanil, droperidol prevented PONV more effectively than the used serotonin receptor antagonists.
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The incidences of total PONV in the first 24 h in groups DH (35%) and DO (30%) were significantly lower than those of group D (57%) (p < 0.05 for each comparison). The differences between groups DH and DO were insignificant. The incidence of PONV was significantly smaller in the DH and DO groups than predicted by the patients’ underlying risks. Pain scores, sedation scores, and recovery times were similar among the three study groups, and no clinically relevant prolongation of the electrocardiographic QTc interval was observed in any patient. conclusions: Dexamethasone 5 mg with either haloperidol 2 mg or ondansetron 4 mg provides a better antiemetic effect than dexamethasone 5 mg alone in patients receiving postoperative morphine PCA.
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The combination treatment decreased craving for alcohol. Naltrexone with (P = .02) or without (P = .049) ondansetron decreased alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum. Ondansetron by itself was similar to naltrexone and the combination in the overall analysis but intermediate in a region-specific analysis.
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In this study of the amino acid nutrition of a marsupial we tested three hypotheses: (a) that brushtail possums eat less when diets contain excesses or deficiencies in essential amino acids, (b) that brushtail possums choose diets that do not contain amino acid excesses, and (c) that amino acid consumption is mediated partly by the 5HT3 receptor. Possums ate less when 0.2-1.0% methionine (wet matter) was added to the diet, but similar concentrations of lysine and threonine had little effect. However, when given a choice, possums always selected the basal ration over one with added lysine, methionine or threonine at concentrations between 0.05% and 0.9%. In contrast to the experiments with excess amino acids, possums did not eat less of a diet almost devoid of an essential amino acid. Instead, the possums ate less when their diets contained synthetic amino acids rather than similar amounts and proportions of amino acids as casein. Contrary to the third hypothesis, the 5HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, did not affect feeding by possums given a diet containing 0.8% methionine, suggesting that post-ingestive feedback, via the 5HT3 receptor, does not regulate amino acid intake when diets contain amino acid excesses.
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This analysis was undertaken to review published reports of the comparative efficacy and safety of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists in the prophylaxis of acute chemotherapy-induced emesis.
We studied 180 female patients undergoing breast surgery. The patients were randomly allocated to receive one of three anesthetic techniques. Compared with either propofol or sevoflurane alone, sevoflurane with ondansetron resulted in a decreased incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Sevoflurane with ondansetron prophylaxis is a good alternative to propofol with respect to avoiding postoperative nausea and vomiting.
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A total of 275 patients were enrolled. Of these, 245 were assessable for efficacy. Patients who received ondansetron plus dexamethasone had a higher complete antiemetic response rate (61% v 46%, P = .02) and less nausea (posttreatment visual analog scale mean 18.2 v 32.8, P < .001) than did those who received ondansetron alone. The time to the first EE was longer for patients in the group that received ondansetron plus dexamethasone (P = .005). Headache (12%), diarrhea (2%), and abdominal colic (1%) were the most common antiemetic-related adverse events reported. The incidence of adverse events was similar between the treatment groups.