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Patients were randomly allocated to receive a single dose of intravenous ondansetron (4 mg) (n = 29) or placebo (n = 29) immediately before surgery.
The pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and ondansetron were evaluated after the intravenous and oral administration of tamoxifen, ondansetron, and both drugs together to rats. The Vmax (maximum velocity), Km (apparent Michaelis-Menten constant), CLint (intrinsic clearance), Ki (inhibition constant), and [I] (concentration of inhibitor in the liver and intestine)/Ki ratio of ondansetron were also measured.
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We enrolled 210 patients (n = 70 in each of 3 groups) undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for this randomized double-blind study. Patients were randomized to intravenous saline 2 mL and intramuscular haloperidol 2 mg (Group H), intravenous ondansetron 4 mg and intramuscular saline 2 mL (Group O), or intravenous ondansetron 4 mg and intramuscular haloperidol 2 mg (Group H+O), administered after induction of general anesthesia and 30 minutes before the conclusion of surgery. We compared the complete response rates, incidence of PONV, nausea scores, the need for rescue medication, patient satisfaction scores, and adverse events during the 24-hour study.
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Premedication with TDS was as effective as droperidol (1.25 mg) or ondansetron (4 mg) in preventing nausea and vomiting in the early and late postoperative periods. However, the use of a TDS patch is more likely to produce a dry mouth.
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Patients receiving single (SF) or multiple fraction (MF) palliative radiotherapy (RT) of moderate or low emetogenic risk for bone metastases were prescribed prophylactic Ondansetron. The frequency and duration of prophylaxis and the use of rescue antiemetics were left to the discretion of the treating physicians. Patients documented episodes of nausea (N) and vomiting (V) in daily diaries before and during RT, and until 10 days following RT completion. Rates of complete prophylaxis (CP) for N&V, respectively (CP = no event and no rescue medication), were calculated for the acute phase (the period from the start of RT to the first day following RT completion inclusive) and the delayed phase (the second to tenth days following RT completion inclusive).
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To investigate the antidepressant-like effects of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-3-methoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (6z) in acute and chronic murine models of depression.
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Recent studies using invertebrate and mammal species have revealed that, endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) modulates cognitive processes, particularly learning and memory, though, at present, it is unclear the manner, where, and how long 5-HT systems are involved. Hence in this work, an attempt was made to study the effects of 5-HT endogenous on memory formation, using a 5-HT uptake facilitator (tianeptine) and, selective 5-HT(1-7) receptor antagonists to determine whether 5-HT uptake sites and which 5-HT receptors are involved, respectively. Results showed that post-training tianeptine injection enhanced memory consolidation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task, which has been useful to detect changes on memory formation elicited by drugs or aging. On interaction experiments, ketanserin (5-HT(1D/2A/2C) antagonist) slightly enhanced tianeptine effects, while WAY 100635 (5-HT(1A) antagonist), SB-224289 (5-HT(1B) inverse agonist), SB-200646 (5-HT(2B/2C) antagonist), ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist), GR 127487 (5-HT(4) antagonist), Ro 04-6790 (5-HT(6) antagonist), DR 4004 (5-HT(7) antagonist), or fluoxetine (an inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake) blocked the facilitatory tianeptine effect. Notably, together tianeptine and Ro 04-6790 impaired learning consolidation. Moreover, 5-HT depletion completely reversed the tianeptine effect. Tianeptine also normalized an impaired memory elicited by scopolamine (an antimuscarinic) or dizocilpine (non-competitive glutamatergic antagonist), while partially reversed that induced by TFMPP (5-HT(1B/1D/2A-2C/7) agonist/antagonist). Finally, tianeptine-fluoxetine coadministration had no effect on learning consolidation; nevertheless, administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, phenserine, potentiated subeffective tianeptine or fluoxetine doses. Collectively, these data confirmed that endogenously 5-HT modulates, via uptake sites and 5-HT(1-7) receptors, memory consolidation, and are consistent with the emerging notion that 5-HT plays a key role on memory formation.
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Patients received intravenous (IV) melodopramide 0.25 mg/kg, IV on dansetron 0.15 mg/kg, or IV saline placebo after induction of standardized halothane, nitrous oxide, and oxygen anesthesia. Muscle relaxants and their antagonists were allowed. Patients received postoperative analgesics as needed.
Adult surgical outpatients at high risk for PONV were studied. Study drugs were administered intravenously within 20 min of induction of nitrous oxide-isoflurane or enflurane anesthesia. A decision-tree analysis was used to group patients into 12 mutually exclusive subgroups based on treatment and outcome. Costs were calculated for the prevention and treatment of PONV. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed for each group.
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The combination of MCL plus CS showed similar efficacy compared with OND and OND plus CS, and is cost-effective. The control of acute emesis in the first course and the patients' age are significant factors, influencing the efficacy of the antiemetic therapy in repeated courses of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.