Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor used in the treatment of recurrent or persistent cases of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). A retrospective review of 116 patients from phase I and II clinical trials who had a baseline and at least one subsequent ECG revealed that four patients had Grade 2 and one patient had Grade 3 QTc interval prolongation; however, a MEDLINE search found no reported cases of torsades de pointes (TdP) in patients treated with vorinostat. We describe the case of a 49 year-old male with a history of CTCL actively undergoing treatment with vorinostat. During day 1 of hospitalization, he developed a pulseless polymorphic ventricular tachycardia requiring resuscitation. He was found to have a QTc of 826 ms. Following correction of potassium and magnesium, QTc gradually decreased and no further ventricular arrhythmia was noted. Other factors implicated in this case included concurrent sertraline and doxepin therapy (both drugs have been associated with the development of TdP in overdose). The mechanism of development of TdP in this patient is postulated to be related to vorinostat use in combination with hypokalemia and concomitant treatment with medications associated with QTc prolongation. This case highlights the importance of post-market surveillance.
Investigation of informative missingness was limited two classes of treatments and for dichotomous outcome measures. The proportion of missing outcomes was very low overall, and hence, the power of detecting any differences in effectiveness estimated under the various imputation methods is small.
The excretion of citalopram in breast milk was studied at steady-state conditions in two patients with depression and in one healthy volunteer after ingestion of a single dose citalopram.
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This analysis was conducted using claims data from an administrative database. Claims from January 1, 1999, through June 30, 2002, were analyzed. Adults aged 18 to 64 years with a diagnosis of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, or social anxiety disorder who had initiated one of the SSRIs of interest during this period were included in the analysis. Refill status was determined based on a refill of the SSRI prescription within 1.5 times the days' supply dispensed or 15 days after the dispensing date of the index SSRI. To adjust for the effects of confounding factors, we conducted a multivariate logistic regression on the status of the first refill. The covariates included age (continuous variable), sex, index drugs (with sertraline as the reference group), and a dummy variable for copayment >15 dollars.
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CBT-I is an efficacious treatment for insomnia comorbid with MDD among patients treated with antidepressant medications. Improvement in insomnia may be related to the change in depression. Future studies should identify which patients are most likely to benefit from the addition of an insomnia-focused therapy to standard antidepressant treatments.
To construct a cost-utility model comparing escitalopram with sertraline in the treatment of major depressive disorders.
A variety of agents are currently used to treat the different anxiety disorders. Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, are still preferred by some for the treatment of acute anxiety, with the advantage of a rapid onset of action, but they are less suitable for long-term treatment due to their potential for memory disturbances, sleepiness, lethargy, physical dependence and withdrawal. Compounds acting on monoamine neurotransmission are more suitable in the treatment of long-term or chronic anxiety disorders. Tricyclic antidepressants, such as imipramine, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors have been shown to be effective anxiolytics, but their side effects and safety concerns have limited their use. The probable role of disturbed serotonergic neurotransmission in anxiety is widely accepted and is the theoretical basis for the use of serotonergic agents such as the 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, buspirone, and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), such as sertraline and paroxetine, which have largely replaced the earlier antidepressants. There is clear evidence for decreased serotonergic function in anxiety as well as in depression. Studies of patients with anxiety disorders show reduced levels of serotonin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as well as reduced serotonin transporter binding. The role of noradrenaline in the control of anxiety is less well understood, although there is considerable evidence to suggest that a disturbance of noradrenergic neurotransmission may also contribute to the symptoms of anxiety. Noradrenaline modulates the activity of brain regions such as the amygdala which are associated with anxiety. In addition, anxiety states are associated with increases in the metabolite of noradrenaline, 3-methoxy-4-hydrophenylglycol (MHPG), and hypersecretion of noradrenaline in plasma and CSF. It appears likely that modulation of both serotonin and noradrenaline systems by dual-reuptake inhibitors may prove to be an advantage in the treatment of anxiety disorders. The serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), venlafaxine, milnacipran and duloxetine are efficacious in relieving anxiety symptoms within depression, and some have proven efficacy in certain anxiety disorders. Initial studies suggest that dual acting agents may have an advantage over selective reuptake inhibitors in certain anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and in patients with comorbid anxiety and depression.
The aim of this study was to extract the factors possibly associated with sertraline treatment response and elucidate their interactions and extent of influence.