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This was a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, single-dose, 3-way crossover study. Twenty-four children aged 7 to 14 years with allergic rhinitis completed the study. All children were randomly allocated to medication sequences and received 3 different drugs on 3 different days, at least 1 week apart. The P300 event-related potential was used as an objective test of sedation. Subjective assessment was by a visual analog scale.
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A non-randomized controlled design was used to compare between the acupuncture group and the medication group. The acupuncture group received 8-week acupuncture therapy, and the medication group received budesonide nasal spray with cetirizine tablets for 8 weeks. The clinical symptoms and signs were analyzed before treatment, at 4 and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, and at 12 weeks after the end of treatment. Furthermore, the clinical efficacy and safety indicators were compared between the two groups.
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In atopic subjects, intradermal injection of platelet-activating factor (PAF), 40 and 400 ng, resulted in an immediate edema reaction markedly blocked by cetirizine, 10 mg twice a day. PAF challenge also induced a significant eosinophil accumulation evidenced by a skin window technique at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h. This inflammatory phenomenon was significantly inhibited by cetirizine. In patients with chronic urticaria, PAF, 100 micrograms intradermally, induced immediate and late cutaneous reactions (LCR) also blocked by cetirizine, 10 mg twice a day. These LCR were accompanied by an infiltration of the deep dermis by degranulated eosinophils. The pathophysiological mechanism of the PAF-induced skin reactions is discussed as well as the mechanism of action of cetirizine.
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Nonspecific vasodilatation during iontophoresis is an important confounding factor in experimental pharmacology. In this investigation, we studied the involvement of sensory nerves and histamine-related reactions in causing nonspecific vasodilatation in a model of anodal and cathodal iontophoresis of sodium chloride. Firstly, we applied a mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) cream to confirm its suppressive effect on nonspecific vasodilatation and to measure its efficacy in three different dosages (duration: 1, 2, and 3 h). We then investigated the role of histamine in nonspecific vasodilatation by giving an oral antihistamine drug (cetirizine) to subjects who had and had not been given EMLA. We found substantial suppression of the nonspecific vasodilatation in all EMLA-treated groups (all dosages) compared with untreated controls (with suppression rates of 60-65%). Dosage had no significant effect. A further suppression of nonspecific vasodilatation was seen after oral cetirizine during anodal and cathodal iontophoresis in both EMLA-treated and untreated groups. The antihistamine effect was most pronounced during anodal iontophoresis. These results suggest a histaminergic increase in perfusion that may be independent of neurogenic mechanisms and depend on polarity (anode or cathode). Local nerve blocks (EMLA) together with cetirizine may therefore be used to reduce nonspecific vasodilatation in both anodal and cathodal iontophoresis.
In phase I, which lasted 2 weeks, patients were randomized to receive one of the study drugs. In phase II, which lasted 4 weeks, the initial treatment was continued unless patients were dissatisfied, in which case they could be randomly assigned to receive another study drug. In both phases pseudoephedrine could be taken as needed. Patients kept daily diaries of symptoms and costs, and study drugs were evaluated at the end of each phase for efficacy, safety, and effect on quality of life by means of a validated questionnaire. A multiattribute outcomes assessment model for formulary decision making was used to rank the antihistamines.
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To determine whether or not cetirizine and loratadine inhibit codeine- induced histamine release in human skin in vivo, we conducted a placebo-controlled double-blind trial in which histamine release was assessed by dermal microdialysis.
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Leukotrienes are potent lipid mediators involved in acute and chronic inflammatory processes and allergic inflammation. Cetirizine is an H1-receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergic symptoms. We analyzed the effect of cetirizine on the formation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) after stimulation of human peripheral blood neutrophils. The inflammatory mediators were analyzed after cellular activation with different stimuli: the Ca ionophore A23187, which bypasses membranous signal transduction elements; the bacterial peptide formyl-methionine-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), which activates cells by binding to a GTP-protein (G-protein)-coupled receptor, and with sodium fluoride (NaF), which directly activates G-proteins. After cellular preincubation with cetirizine, the amounts of LTB4 generated from neutrophil granulocytes decreased significantly when the cells were subsequently stimulated with either fMLP or NaF, in contrast to stimulations with the Ca ionophore. The data provide evidence that cetirizine exerts anti-inflammatory effects apart from H1 antagonism.
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The above drugs of the latest generation seem to posses antiallergic activity not only due to antihistaminic effect but also due to other mechanisms. Different suppressive action of H1-antagonists reflects also individual sensitivity to different drugs. The factor of individual sensitivity of the patients to a pharmacological action of the drug may be crucial in the selection of the most effective medicine for each patient. This is confirmed by the data of individual sensitivity of the patient to antihistaminic and antiallergic action of H1-antagonists. The illustrated method may be helpful for individual selection of H1-antagonists for treatment of patients with allergic diseases.